什么是setup.py?-Python 实用宝典

什么是setup.py?

谁能解释一下setup.py它是什么以及如何进行配置或使用?

问题:什么是setup.py

谁能解释一下setup.py它是什么以及如何进行配置或使用?

Can anyone please explain what setup.py is and how it can be configured or used?


回答 0

setup.py 是一个python文件,通常会告诉您要安装的模块/软件包已与Distutils打包并分发,Distutils是分发Python模块的标准。

这使您可以轻松安装Python软件包。通常写就足够了:

$ pip install . 

pip将使用setup.py安装模块。避免setup.py直接调用。

https://docs.python.org/3/installing/index.html#installing-index

setup.py is a python file, which usually tells you that the module/package you are about to install has been packaged and distributed with Distutils, which is the standard for distributing Python Modules.

This allows you to easily install Python packages. Often it's enough to write:

$ pip install . 

pip will use setup.py to install your module. Avoid calling setup.py directly.

https://docs.python.org/3/installing/index.html#installing-index


回答 1

它有助于foo在您的计算机上安装python软件包(也可以位于中virtualenv),以便您可以foo从其他项目以及[I] Python提示符中导入该软件包。

它完成pipeasy_install等的类似工作,


使用 setup.py

让我们从一些定义开始:

-包含__init__.py文件的文件夹/目录。
模块 -具有.py扩展名的有效python文件。
分发 -一个软件包与其他软件包模块的关系

假设您要安装名为的软件包foo。那你做

$ git clone https://github.com/user/foo  
$ cd foo
$ python setup.py install

相反,如果您不想实际安装它,但仍然想使用它。然后做,

$ python setup.py develop  

此命令将在站点包内创建到源目录的符号链接,而不是复制内容。因此,它非常快(特别是对于大包装)。


创造 setup.py

如果您有类似的打包树,

foo
├── foo
   ├── data_struct.py
   ├── __init__.py
   └── internals.py
├── README
├── requirements.txt
└── setup.py

然后,在setup.py脚本中执行以下操作,以便可以将其安装在某些计算机上:

from setuptools import setup

setup(
   name='foo',
   version='1.0',
   description='A useful module',
   author='Man Foo',
   author_email='foomail@foo.com',
   packages=['foo'],  #same as name
   install_requires=['bar', 'greek'], #external packages as dependencies
)

相反,如果您的程序包树更复杂,如以下所示:

foo
├── foo
   ├── data_struct.py
   ├── __init__.py
   └── internals.py
├── README
├── requirements.txt
├── scripts
   ├── cool
   └── skype
└── setup.py

然后,setup.py在这种情况下,您将像:

from setuptools import setup

setup(
   name='foo',
   version='1.0',
   description='A useful module',
   author='Man Foo',
   author_email='foomail@foo.com',
   packages=['foo'],  #same as name
   install_requires=['bar', 'greek'], #external packages as dependencies
   scripts=[
            'scripts/cool',
            'scripts/skype',
           ]
)

向(setup.py)添加更多内容,并使其得体:

from setuptools import setup

with open("README", 'r') as f:
    long_description = f.read()

setup(
   name='foo',
   version='1.0',
   description='A useful module',
   license="MIT",
   long_description=long_description,
   author='Man Foo',
   author_email='foomail@foo.com',
   url="http://www.foopackage.com/",
   packages=['foo'],  #same as name
   install_requires=['bar', 'greek'], #external packages as dependencies
   scripts=[
            'scripts/cool',
            'scripts/skype',
           ]
)

long_description被使用pypi.org作为你的包的README描述。


最后,您现在可以将软件包上传到PyPi.org,以便其他人可以使用来安装您的软件包pip install yourpackage

第一步是使用以下方法在pypi中声明您的软件包名称和空间:

$ python setup.py register

注册您的包裹名称后,任何人都无法声明或使用它。成功注册后,您必须通过以下方式将软件包上传到云(到云):

$ python setup.py upload

您也可以选择GPG通过以下方式对包裹进行签名:

$ python setup.py --sign upload

奖励setup.py在此处查看来自真实项目的示例:torchvision-setup.py

It helps to install a python package foo on your machine (can also be in virtualenv) so that you can import the package foo from other projects and also from [I]Python prompts.

It does the similar job of pip, easy_install etc.,


Using setup.py

Let's start with some definitions:

Package - A folder/directory that contains __init__.py file.
Module - A valid python file with .py extension.
Distribution - How one package relates to other packages and modules.

Let's say you want to install a package named foo. Then you do,

$ git clone https://github.com/user/foo  
$ cd foo
$ python setup.py install

Instead, if you don't want to actually install it but still would like to use it. Then do,

$ python setup.py develop  

This command will create symlinks to the source directory within site-packages instead of copying things. Because of this, it is quite fast (particularly for large packages).


Creating setup.py

If you have your package tree like,

foo
├── foo
│   ├── data_struct.py
│   ├── __init__.py
│   └── internals.py
├── README
├── requirements.txt
└── setup.py

Then, you do the following in your setup.py script so that it can be installed on some machine:

from setuptools import setup

setup(
   name='foo',
   version='1.0',
   description='A useful module',
   author='Man Foo',
   author_email='foomail@foo.com',
   packages=['foo'],  #same as name
   install_requires=['bar', 'greek'], #external packages as dependencies
)

Instead, if your package tree is more complex like the one below:

foo
├── foo
│   ├── data_struct.py
│   ├── __init__.py
│   └── internals.py
├── README
├── requirements.txt
├── scripts
│   ├── cool
│   └── skype
└── setup.py

Then, your setup.py in this case would be like:

from setuptools import setup

setup(
   name='foo',
   version='1.0',
   description='A useful module',
   author='Man Foo',
   author_email='foomail@foo.com',
   packages=['foo'],  #same as name
   install_requires=['bar', 'greek'], #external packages as dependencies
   scripts=[
            'scripts/cool',
            'scripts/skype',
           ]
)

Add more stuff to (setup.py) & make it decent:

from setuptools import setup

with open("README", 'r') as f:
    long_description = f.read()

setup(
   name='foo',
   version='1.0',
   description='A useful module',
   license="MIT",
   long_description=long_description,
   author='Man Foo',
   author_email='foomail@foo.com',
   url="http://www.foopackage.com/",
   packages=['foo'],  #same as name
   install_requires=['bar', 'greek'], #external packages as dependencies
   scripts=[
            'scripts/cool',
            'scripts/skype',
           ]
)

The long_description is used in pypi.org as the README description of your package.


And finally, you're now ready to upload your package to PyPi.org so that others can install your package using pip install yourpackage.

First step is to claim your package name & space in pypi using:

$ python setup.py register

Once your package name is registered, nobody can claim or use it. After successful registration, you have to upload your package there (to the cloud) by,

$ python setup.py upload

Optionally, you can also sign your package with GPG by,

$ python setup.py --sign upload

Bonus: See a sample setup.py from a real project here: torchvision-setup.py


回答 2

setup.py是Python对多平台安装程序和make文件的解答。

如果您熟悉命令行安装,请make && make install转换为python setup.py build && python setup.py install

一些软件包是纯Python,并且仅按字节编译。其他可能包含本机代码,这将需要本机编译器(如gcccl)和Python接口模块(如swigpyrex)。

setup.py is Python's answer to a multi-platform installer and make file.

If you’re familiar with command line installations, then make && make install translates to python setup.py build && python setup.py install.

Some packages are pure Python, and are only byte compiled. Others may contain native code, which will require a native compiler (like gcc or cl) and a Python interfacing module (like swig or pyrex).


回答 3

如果您下载的软件包在根文件夹中具有“ setup.py”,则可以通过运行以下命令进行安装

python setup.py install

如果您正在开发项目,并且想知道此文件的用途,请查看有关编写安装脚本的Python文档。

If you downloaded package that has "setup.py" in root folder, you can install it by running

python setup.py install

If you are developing a project and are wondering what this file is useful for, check Python documentation on writing the Setup Script


回答 4

setup.py是通常用该语言编写的库或程序随附的Python脚本。目的是正确安装软件。

许多软件包将distutils框架与结合使用setup.py

http://docs.python.org/distutils/

setup.py is a Python script that is usually shipped with libraries or programs, written in that language. It's purpose is the correct installation of the software.

Many packages use the distutils framework in conjuction with setup.py.

http://docs.python.org/distutils/


回答 5

setup.py可以在两种情况下使用:首先,您要安装Python软件包。其次,您要创建自己的Python包。通常,标准的Python软件包具有几个重要文件,例如setup.py,setup.cfg和Manifest.in。当您创建Python软件包时,这三个文件将确定(egg-info文件夹下PKG-INFO中的内容)名称,版本,描述,其他所需的安装(通常在.txt文件中)以及其他几个参数。创建包时setup.py将读取setup.cfg(可以是tar.gz)。在Manifest.in中,您可以定义应包含在软件包中的内容。无论如何,您都可以使用setup.py做很多事情,例如

python setup.py build
python setup.py install
python setup.py sdist <distname> upload [-r urltorepo]  (to upload package to pypi or local repo)

还有许多其他命令可以与setup.py一起使用。求助

python setup.py --help-commands

setup.py can be used in two scenarios , First, you want to install a Python package. Second, you want to create your own Python package. Usually standard Python package has couple of important files like setup.py, setup.cfg and Manifest.in. When you are creating the Python package, these three files will determine the (content in PKG-INFO under egg-info folder) name, version, description, other required installations (usually in .txt file) and few other parameters. setup.cfg is read by setup.py while package is created (could be tar.gz ). Manifest.in is where you can define what should be included in your package. Anyways you can do bunch of stuff using setup.py like

python setup.py build
python setup.py install
python setup.py sdist <distname> upload [-r urltorepo]  (to upload package to pypi or local repo)

There are bunch of other commands which could be used with setup.py . for help

python setup.py --help-commands

回答 6

当您通过setup.py打开终端(Mac,Linux)或命令提示符(Windows)下载软件包时。使用“ cd Tab”按钮并为您提供帮助,将路径设置为已下载文件的文件夹的正确位置,该文​​件夹位于setup.py

iMac:~ user $ cd path/pakagefolderwithsetupfile/

按Enter键,您应该会看到类似以下内容:

iMac:pakagefolderwithsetupfile user$

然后输入以下内容python setup.py install

iMac:pakagefolderwithsetupfile user$ python setup.py install

enter。做完了!

When you download a package with setup.py open your Terminal (Mac,Linux) or Command Prompt (Windows). Using cd and helping you with Tab button set the path right to the folder where you have downloaded the file and where there is setup.py :

iMac:~ user $ cd path/pakagefolderwithsetupfile/

Press enter, you should see something like this:

iMac:pakagefolderwithsetupfile user$

Then type after this python setup.py install :

iMac:pakagefolderwithsetupfile user$ python setup.py install

Press enter. Done!


回答 7

要安装已下载的Python软件包,请提取档案并在其中运行setup.py脚本:

python setup.py install

对我来说,这一直很奇怪。将包管理器指向下载位置会更自然,例如在Ruby和Nodejs中。gem install rails-4.1.1.gem

包管理器也更舒适,因为它既熟悉又可靠。另一方面,每个setup.py都是新颖的,因为它是特定于包装的。它要求遵守约定“我相信此setup.py会接受与过去使用的命令相同的命令”。这是对精神意志力的遗憾。

我并不是说setup.py工作流的安全性不如包管理器(我知道Pip只是在内部运行setup.py),但是我肯定觉得这很麻烦。将所有命令都发送到同一个程序包管理器应用程序是一种和谐。您甚至可能会喜欢它。

To install a Python package you've downloaded, you extract the archive and run the setup.py script inside:

python setup.py install

To me, this has always felt odd. It would be more natural to point a package manager at the download, as one would do in Ruby and Nodejs, eg. gem install rails-4.1.1.gem

A package manager is more comfortable too, because it's familiar and reliable. On the other hand, each setup.py is novel, because it's specific to the package. It demands faith in convention "I trust this setup.py takes the same commands as others I have used in the past". That's a regrettable tax on mental willpower.

I'm not saying the setup.py workflow is less secure than a package manager (I understand Pip just runs the setup.py inside), but certainly I feel it's awkard and jarring. There's a harmony to commands all being to the same package manager application. You might even grow fond it.


回答 8

setup.py是与其他文件一样的Python文件。它可以采用任何名称,除非按惯例命名,否则setup.py每个脚本都没有不同的过程。

最常setup.py用于安装Python模块,但用于服务器其他目的:

模块:

也许这是setup.py模块中最著名的用法。尽管可以使用来安装它们pip,但pip默认情况下不包括旧的Python版本,因此需要单独安装。

如果您想安装模块但不想安装pip,则唯一的选择是从setup.py文件安装模块。这可以通过完成python setup.py install。这将Python模块安装到根字典(不pipeasy_installECT)。

pip失败时通常使用此方法。例如,如果所需软件包的正确Python版本pip由于可能由于不再维护而无法提供,则下载源并运行python setup.py install将执行相同的操作,除非需要编译的二进制文件(但将忽略编译的二进制文件)。 Python版本-除非返回错误)。

的另一种用法setup.py是从源代码安装软件包。如果模块仍在开发中,则将无法使用wheel文件,并且唯一的安装方法是直接从源代码进行安装。

构建Python扩展:

构建模块后,可以使用distutils安装脚本将其转换为可分发的模块。一旦构建完成,就可以使用上面的命令进行安装。

安装脚本易于构建,一旦文件已正确配置并且可以通过运行进行编译python setup.py build(请参阅所有命令的链接)。

再次setup.py按易用性和惯例命名,但可以使用任何名称。

Cython:

setup.py文件的另一种著名用法包括编译后的扩展名。这些需要具有用户定义值的安装脚本。它们允许快速执行(但一旦编译则依赖平台)。这是文档中的一个简单示例:

from distutils.core import setup
from Cython.Build import cythonize

setup(
    name = 'Hello world app',
    ext_modules = cythonize("hello.pyx"),
)

这可以通过编译 python setup.py build

Cx_Freeze:

需要安装脚本的另一个模块是cx_Freeze。这会将Python脚本转换为可执行文件。这允许包括描述,名称,图标,包在内的许多命令包括,排除等,并且一旦运行将产生可分发的应用程序。文档中的示例:

import sys
from cx_Freeze import setup, Executable
build_exe_options = {"packages": ["os"], "excludes": ["tkinter"]} 

base = None
if sys.platform == "win32":
    base = "Win32GUI"

setup(  name = "guifoo",
        version = "0.1",
        description = "My GUI application!",
        options = {"build_exe": build_exe_options},
        executables = [Executable("guifoo.py", base=base)])

可以通过编译python setup.py build

那么什么是setup.py文件?

很简单,它是一个在Python环境中构建或配置某些东西的脚本。

分发时,程序包应仅包含一个安装脚本,但将多个脚本组合成一个安装脚本并不少见。请注意,这经常涉及distutils但并非总是如此(如我在上一个示例中所示)。要记住的事情是以某种方式配置Python包/脚本。

它使用名称,因此在构建或安装时始终可以使用相同的命令。

setup.py is a Python file like any other. It can take any name, except by convention it is named setup.py so that there is not a different procedure with each script.

Most frequently setup.py is used to install a Python module but server other purposes:

Modules:

Perhaps this is most famous usage of setup.py is in modules. Although they can be installed using pip, old Python versions did not include pip by default and they needed to be installed separately.

If you wanted to install a module but did not want to install pip, just about the only alternative was to install the module from setup.py file. This could be achieved via python setup.py install. This would install the Python module to the root dictionary (without pip, easy_install ect).

This method is often used when pip will fail. For example if the correct Python version of the desired package is not available via pipperhaps because it is no longer maintained, , downloading the source and running python setup.py install would perform the same thing, except in the case of compiled binaries are required, (but will disregard the Python version -unless an error is returned).

Another use of setup.py is to install a package from source. If a module is still under development the wheel files will not be available and the only way to install is to install from the source directly.

Building Python extensions:

When a module has been built it can be converted into module ready for distribution using a distutils setup script. Once built these can be installed using the command above.

A setup script is easy to build and once the file has been properly configured and can be compiled by running python setup.py build (see link for all commands).

Once again it is named setup.py for ease of use and by convention, but can take any name.

Cython:

Another famous use of setup.py files include compiled extensions. These require a setup script with user defined values. They allow fast (but once compiled are platform dependant) execution. Here is a simple example from the documentation:

from distutils.core import setup
from Cython.Build import cythonize

setup(
    name = 'Hello world app',
    ext_modules = cythonize("hello.pyx"),
)

This can be compiled via python setup.py build

Cx_Freeze:

Another module requiring a setup script is cx_Freeze. This converts Python script to executables. This allows many commands such as descriptions, names, icons, packages to include, exclude ect and once run will produce a distributable application. An example from the documentation:

import sys
from cx_Freeze import setup, Executable
build_exe_options = {"packages": ["os"], "excludes": ["tkinter"]} 

base = None
if sys.platform == "win32":
    base = "Win32GUI"

setup(  name = "guifoo",
        version = "0.1",
        description = "My GUI application!",
        options = {"build_exe": build_exe_options},
        executables = [Executable("guifoo.py", base=base)])

This can be compiled via python setup.py build.

So what is a setup.py file?

Quite simply it is a script that builds or configures something in the Python environment.

A package when distributed should contain only one setup script but it is not uncommon to combine several together into a single setup script. Notice this often involves distutils but not always (as I showed in my last example). The thing to remember it just configures Python package/script in some way.

It takes the name so the same command can always be used when building or installing.


回答 9

为简单起见,setup.py的运行就像"__main__"您在调用安装函数时提到的其他答案一样。在setup.py内部,应该放置安装软件包所需的一切。

常用的setup.py功能

以下两节讨论了许多setup.py模块具有的两件事。

setuptools.setup

此功能允许您指定项目属性,例如项目的名称,版本。...最重要的是,如果其他功能打包正确,此功能将允许您安装其他功能。请参阅此网页以获取setuptools.setup的示例。setuptools.setup的

这些属性允许安装以下类型的软件包:

自定义功能

在理想的世界中,setuptools.setup将为您处理所有事情。不幸的是,情况并非总是如此。有时,您需要做一些特定的事情,例如使用subprocess命令安装依赖项,以使要安装的系统处于正确的软件包状态。尝试避免这种情况,这些功能会造成混乱,并且在OS甚至发行版之间通常会有所不同。

To make it simple, setup.py is run as "__main__" when you call the install functions the other answers mentioned. Inside setup.py, you should put everything needed to install your package.

Common setup.py functions

The following two sections discuss two things many setup.py modules have.

setuptools.setup

This function allows you to specify project attributes like the name of the project, the version.... Most importantly, this function allows you to install other functions if they're packaged properly. See this webpage for an example of setuptools.setup

These attributes of setuptools.setup enable installing these types of packages:

  • Packages that are imported to your project and listed in PyPI using setuptools.findpackages:

    packages=find_packages(exclude=["docs","tests", ".gitignore", "README.rst","DESCRIPTION.rst"])

  • Packages not in PyPI, but can be downloaded from a URL using dependency_links

    dependency_links=["http://peak.telecommunity.com/snapshots/",]

Custom functions

In an ideal world, setuptools.setup would handle everything for you. Unfortunately this isn't always the case. Sometimes you have to do specific things, like installing dependencies with the subprocess command, to get the system you're installing on in the right state for your package. Try to avoid this, these functions get confusing and often differ between OS and even distribution.


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