使用python向RESTful API发出请求-Python 实用宝典

使用python向RESTful API发出请求

我有一个RESTful API,我已经在EC2实例上使用Elasticsearch的实现公开了索引内容的语料库。我可以通过从终端机(MacOSX)运行以下命令来查询搜索: curl -XGET 'http://ES_search_demo.com/document/record/_search?pretty=true' -d '{ "query": { "bool": { "must": [ { "text": { "record.document": "SOME_JOURNAL" } }, { "text": { "record.articleTitle": "farmers" } } ], "must_not": [], "should": [] } }, "from": 0, "size": 50, "sort": [], "facets": {} }' 如何使用python/requests或python/urllib2(不确定要使用哪一个-一直在使用urllib2,但听说请求更好……)将以上转换为API请求?我是否可以通过标题?

问题:使用python向RESTful API发出请求

我有一个RESTful API,我已经在EC2实例上使用Elasticsearch的实现公开了索引内容的语料库。我可以通过从终端机(MacOSX)运行以下命令来查询搜索:

curl -XGET 'http://ES_search_demo.com/document/record/_search?pretty=true' -d '{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "text": {
            "record.document": "SOME_JOURNAL"
          }
        },
        {
          "text": {
            "record.articleTitle": "farmers"
          }
        }
      ],
      "must_not": [],
      "should": []
    }
  },
  "from": 0,
  "size": 50,
  "sort": [],
  "facets": {}
}'

如何使用python/requestspython/urllib2(不确定要使用哪一个-一直在使用urllib2,但听说请求更好……)将以上转换为API请求?我是否可以通过标题?

I have a RESTful API that I have exposed using an implementation of Elasticsearch on an EC2 instance to index a corpus of content. I can query the search by running the following from my terminal (MacOSX):

curl -XGET 'http://ES_search_demo.com/document/record/_search?pretty=true' -d '{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "text": {
            "record.document": "SOME_JOURNAL"
          }
        },
        {
          "text": {
            "record.articleTitle": "farmers"
          }
        }
      ],
      "must_not": [],
      "should": []
    }
  },
  "from": 0,
  "size": 50,
  "sort": [],
  "facets": {}
}'

How do I turn above into a API request using python/requests or python/urllib2 (not sure which one to go for - have been using urllib2, but hear that requests is better...)? Do I pass as a header or otherwise?


回答 0

使用请求

import requests
url = 'http://ES_search_demo.com/document/record/_search?pretty=true'
data = '''{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "text": {
            "record.document": "SOME_JOURNAL"
          }
        },
        {
          "text": {
            "record.articleTitle": "farmers"
          }
        }
      ],
      "must_not": [],
      "should": []
    }
  },
  "from": 0,
  "size": 50,
  "sort": [],
  "facets": {}
}'''
response = requests.post(url, data=data)

然后,根据您的API返回的响应类型,您可能需要查看response.textresponse.json()(或可能response.status_code先检查)。请参阅此处的快速入门文档,尤其是本节

Using requests:

import requests
url = 'http://ES_search_demo.com/document/record/_search?pretty=true'
data = '''{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "text": {
            "record.document": "SOME_JOURNAL"
          }
        },
        {
          "text": {
            "record.articleTitle": "farmers"
          }
        }
      ],
      "must_not": [],
      "should": []
    }
  },
  "from": 0,
  "size": 50,
  "sort": [],
  "facets": {}
}'''
response = requests.post(url, data=data)

Depending on what kind of response your API returns, you will then probably want to look at response.text or response.json() (or possibly inspect response.status_code first). See the quickstart docs here, especially this section.


回答 1

使用请求json使其变得简单。

  1. 调用API
  2. 假设API返回JSON,请使用json.loads函数将JSON对象解析为Python dict
  3. 遍历字典以提取信息。

请求模块为您提供有用的功能,以循环执行成功和失败。

if(Response.ok):将帮助您确定API调用是否成功(响应代码-200)

Response.raise_for_status() 将帮助您获取从API返回的http代码。

以下是进行此类API调用的示例代码。也可以在github中找到。该代码假定该API使用摘要身份验证。您可以跳过此步骤,也可以使用其他适当的身份验证模块来验证调用API的客户端。

#Python 2.7.6
#RestfulClient.py

import requests
from requests.auth import HTTPDigestAuth
import json

# Replace with the correct URL
url = "http://api_url"

# It is a good practice not to hardcode the credentials. So ask the user to enter credentials at runtime
myResponse = requests.get(url,auth=HTTPDigestAuth(raw_input("username: "), raw_input("Password: ")), verify=True)
#print (myResponse.status_code)

# For successful API call, response code will be 200 (OK)
if(myResponse.ok):

    # Loading the response data into a dict variable
    # json.loads takes in only binary or string variables so using content to fetch binary content
    # Loads (Load String) takes a Json file and converts into python data structure (dict or list, depending on JSON)
    jData = json.loads(myResponse.content)

    print("The response contains {0} properties".format(len(jData)))
    print("\n")
    for key in jData:
        print key + " : " + jData[key]
else:
  # If response code is not ok (200), print the resulting http error code with description
    myResponse.raise_for_status()

Using requests and json makes it simple.

  1. Call the API
  2. Assuming the API returns a JSON, parse the JSON object into a Python dict using json.loads function
  3. Loop through the dict to extract information.

Requests module provides you useful function to loop for success and failure.

if(Response.ok): will help help you determine if your API call is successful (Response code - 200)

Response.raise_for_status() will help you fetch the http code that is returned from the API.

Below is a sample code for making such API calls. Also can be found in github. The code assumes that the API makes use of digest authentication. You can either skip this or use other appropriate authentication modules to authenticate the client invoking the API.

#Python 2.7.6
#RestfulClient.py

import requests
from requests.auth import HTTPDigestAuth
import json

# Replace with the correct URL
url = "http://api_url"

# It is a good practice not to hardcode the credentials. So ask the user to enter credentials at runtime
myResponse = requests.get(url,auth=HTTPDigestAuth(raw_input("username: "), raw_input("Password: ")), verify=True)
#print (myResponse.status_code)

# For successful API call, response code will be 200 (OK)
if(myResponse.ok):

    # Loading the response data into a dict variable
    # json.loads takes in only binary or string variables so using content to fetch binary content
    # Loads (Load String) takes a Json file and converts into python data structure (dict or list, depending on JSON)
    jData = json.loads(myResponse.content)

    print("The response contains {0} properties".format(len(jData)))
    print("\n")
    for key in jData:
        print key + " : " + jData[key]
else:
  # If response code is not ok (200), print the resulting http error code with description
    myResponse.raise_for_status()

回答 2

因此,您想在GET请求的主体中传递数据,最好在POST调用中进行。您可以通过同时使用两个请求来实现。

原始请求

GET http://ES_search_demo.com/document/record/_search?pretty=true HTTP/1.1
Host: ES_search_demo.com
Content-Length: 183
User-Agent: python-requests/2.9.0
Connection: keep-alive
Accept: */*
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate

{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "text": {
            "record.document": "SOME_JOURNAL"
          }
        },
        {
          "text": {
            "record.articleTitle": "farmers"
          }
        }
      ],
      "must_not": [],
      "should": []
    }
  },
  "from": 0,
  "size": 50,
  "sort": [],
  "facets": {}
}

带请求的示例呼叫

import requests

def consumeGETRequestSync():
data = '{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "text": {
            "record.document": "SOME_JOURNAL"
          }
        },
        {
          "text": {
            "record.articleTitle": "farmers"
          }
        }
      ],
      "must_not": [],
      "should": []
    }
  },
  "from": 0,
  "size": 50,
  "sort": [],
  "facets": {}
}'
url = 'http://ES_search_demo.com/document/record/_search?pretty=true'
headers = {"Accept": "application/json"}
# call get service with headers and params
response = requests.get(url,data = data)
print "code:"+ str(response.status_code)
print "******************"
print "headers:"+ str(response.headers)
print "******************"
print "content:"+ str(response.text)

consumeGETRequestSync()

So you want to pass data in body of a GET request, better would be to do it in POST call. You can achieve this by using both Requests.

Raw Request

GET http://ES_search_demo.com/document/record/_search?pretty=true HTTP/1.1
Host: ES_search_demo.com
Content-Length: 183
User-Agent: python-requests/2.9.0
Connection: keep-alive
Accept: */*
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate

{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "text": {
            "record.document": "SOME_JOURNAL"
          }
        },
        {
          "text": {
            "record.articleTitle": "farmers"
          }
        }
      ],
      "must_not": [],
      "should": []
    }
  },
  "from": 0,
  "size": 50,
  "sort": [],
  "facets": {}
}

Sample call with Requests

import requests

def consumeGETRequestSync():
data = '{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "text": {
            "record.document": "SOME_JOURNAL"
          }
        },
        {
          "text": {
            "record.articleTitle": "farmers"
          }
        }
      ],
      "must_not": [],
      "should": []
    }
  },
  "from": 0,
  "size": 50,
  "sort": [],
  "facets": {}
}'
url = 'http://ES_search_demo.com/document/record/_search?pretty=true'
headers = {"Accept": "application/json"}
# call get service with headers and params
response = requests.get(url,data = data)
print "code:"+ str(response.status_code)
print "******************"
print "headers:"+ str(response.headers)
print "******************"
print "content:"+ str(response.text)

consumeGETRequestSync()

回答 3

以下是在python-中执行其余api的程序

import requests
url = 'https://url'
data = '{  "platform": {    "login": {      "userName": "name",      "password": "pwd"    }  } }'
response = requests.post(url, data=data,headers={"Content-Type": "application/json"})
print(response)
sid=response.json()['platform']['login']['sessionId']   //to extract the detail from response
print(response.text)
print(sid)

Below is the program to execute the rest api in python-

import requests
url = 'https://url'
data = '{  "platform": {    "login": {      "userName": "name",      "password": "pwd"    }  } }'
response = requests.post(url, data=data,headers={"Content-Type": "application/json"})
print(response)
sid=response.json()['platform']['login']['sessionId']   //to extract the detail from response
print(response.text)
print(sid)

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