使用Python实现触摸?-Python 实用宝典

使用Python实现触摸?

touch是Unix实用程序,用于将文件的修改和访问时间设置为当前时间。如果文件不存在,则使用默认权限创建。 您如何将其实现为Python函数?尝试跨平台并完善。 (Google当前针对“ python触摸文件”的搜索结果并不理想,但指向os.utime。)

问题:使用Python实现触摸?

touch是Unix实用程序,用于将文件的修改和访问时间设置为当前时间。如果文件不存在,则使用默认权限创建。

您如何将其实现为Python函数?尝试跨平台并完善。

(Google当前针对“ python触摸文件”的搜索结果并不理想,但指向os.utime。)

touch is a Unix utility that sets the modification and access times of files to the current time of day. If the file doesn't exist, it is created with default permissions.

How would you implement it as a Python function? Try to be cross platform and complete.

(Current Google results for "python touch file" are not that great, but point to os.utime.)


回答 0

看起来这是Python 3.4-中的新增功能pathlib

from pathlib import Path

Path('path/to/file.txt').touch()

这将创建一个 file.txt在路径上。

-

Path.touch(mode = 0o777,exist_ok = True)

在此给定路径下创建一个文件。如果指定了mode,则将其与进程的umask值组合以确定文件模式和访问标志。如果文件已经存在,并且如果exist_ok为true(并且其修改时间已更新为当前时间),则该函数将成功执行,否则将引发FileExistsError。

Looks like this is new as of Python 3.4 - pathlib.

from pathlib import Path

Path('path/to/file.txt').touch()

This will create a file.txt at the path.

--

Path.touch(mode=0o777, exist_ok=True)

Create a file at this given path. If mode is given, it is combined with the process’ umask value to determine the file mode and access flags. If the file already exists, the function succeeds if exist_ok is true (and its modification time is updated to the current time), otherwise FileExistsError is raised.


回答 1

与其他解决方案相比,这要使比赛更加自由。(该with关键字是Python 2.5中的新增功能。)

import os
def touch(fname, times=None):
    with open(fname, 'a'):
        os.utime(fname, times)

大致相当于这个。

import os
def touch(fname, times=None):
    fhandle = open(fname, 'a')
    try:
        os.utime(fname, times)
    finally:
        fhandle.close()

现在,要使其真正摆脱竞争,您需要使用并更改打开的文件句柄的时间戳,而不是打开文件,然后更改文件名(可能已重命名)的时间戳。不幸的是,Python似乎没有提供一种futimes无需经过ctypes任何类似操作即可调用的方法...


编辑

Nate Parsons所述,Python 3.3将为诸如之类的函数添加 指定文件描述符(when ,该函数将使用futimessyscall而不是内部的utimessyscall。换一种说法:

import os
def touch(fname, mode=0o666, dir_fd=None, **kwargs):
    flags = os.O_CREAT | os.O_APPEND
    with os.fdopen(os.open(fname, flags=flags, mode=mode, dir_fd=dir_fd)) as f:
        os.utime(f.fileno() if os.utime in os.supports_fd else fname,
            dir_fd=None if os.supports_fd else dir_fd, **kwargs)

This tries to be a little more race-free than the other solutions. (The with keyword is new in Python 2.5.)

import os
def touch(fname, times=None):
    with open(fname, 'a'):
        os.utime(fname, times)

Roughly equivalent to this.

import os
def touch(fname, times=None):
    fhandle = open(fname, 'a')
    try:
        os.utime(fname, times)
    finally:
        fhandle.close()

Now, to really make it race-free, you need to use and change the timestamp of the open filehandle, instead of opening the file and then changing the timestamp on the filename (which may have been renamed). Unfortunately, Python doesn't seem to provide a way to call futimes without going through ctypes or similar...


EDIT

As noted by Nate Parsons, Python 3.3 will add specifying a file descriptor (when ) to functions such as , which will use the futimes syscall instead of the utimes syscall under the hood. In other words:

import os
def touch(fname, mode=0o666, dir_fd=None, **kwargs):
    flags = os.O_CREAT | os.O_APPEND
    with os.fdopen(os.open(fname, flags=flags, mode=mode, dir_fd=dir_fd)) as f:
        os.utime(f.fileno() if os.utime in os.supports_fd else fname,
            dir_fd=None if os.supports_fd else dir_fd, **kwargs)

回答 2

def touch(fname):
    if os.path.exists(fname):
        os.utime(fname, None)
    else:
        open(fname, 'a').close()
def touch(fname):
    if os.path.exists(fname):
        os.utime(fname, None)
    else:
        open(fname, 'a').close()

回答 3

为什么不试试呢?:

import os

def touch(fname):
    try:
        os.utime(fname, None)
    except OSError:
        open(fname, 'a').close()

我相信这可以消除任何重要的比赛条件。如果该文件不存在,则将引发异常。

唯一可能的竞争条件是,如果文件是在调用open()之前但在os.utime()之后创建的。但这无关紧要,因为在这种情况下,修改时间将是预期的,因为修改时间必须在调用touch()的过程中发生。

Why not try this?:

import os

def touch(fname):
    try:
        os.utime(fname, None)
    except OSError:
        open(fname, 'a').close()

I believe this eliminates any race condition that matters. If the file does not exist then an exception will be thrown.

The only possible race condition here is if the file is created before open() is called but after os.utime(). But this does not matter because in this case the modification time will be as expected since it must have happened during the call to touch().


回答 4

以下是一些使用ctypes的代码(仅在Linux上经过测试):

from ctypes import *
libc = CDLL("libc.so.6")

#  struct timespec {
#             time_t tv_sec;        /* seconds */
#             long   tv_nsec;       /* nanoseconds */
#         };
# int futimens(int fd, const struct timespec times[2]);

class c_timespec(Structure):
    _fields_ = [('tv_sec', c_long), ('tv_nsec', c_long)]

class c_utimbuf(Structure):
    _fields_ = [('atime', c_timespec), ('mtime', c_timespec)]

utimens = CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(c_utimbuf))
futimens = CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(c_utimbuf)) 

# from /usr/include/i386-linux-gnu/bits/stat.h
UTIME_NOW  = ((1l << 30) - 1l)
UTIME_OMIT = ((1l << 30) - 2l)
now  = c_timespec(0,UTIME_NOW)
omit = c_timespec(0,UTIME_OMIT)

# wrappers
def update_atime(fileno):
        assert(isinstance(fileno, int))
        libc.futimens(fileno, byref(c_utimbuf(now, omit)))
def update_mtime(fileno):
        assert(isinstance(fileno, int))
        libc.futimens(fileno, byref(c_utimbuf(omit, now)))

# usage example:
#
# f = open("/tmp/test")
# update_mtime(f.fileno())

Here's some code that uses ctypes (only tested on Linux):

from ctypes import *
libc = CDLL("libc.so.6")

#  struct timespec {
#             time_t tv_sec;        /* seconds */
#             long   tv_nsec;       /* nanoseconds */
#         };
# int futimens(int fd, const struct timespec times[2]);

class c_timespec(Structure):
    _fields_ = [('tv_sec', c_long), ('tv_nsec', c_long)]

class c_utimbuf(Structure):
    _fields_ = [('atime', c_timespec), ('mtime', c_timespec)]

utimens = CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(c_utimbuf))
futimens = CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(c_utimbuf)) 

# from /usr/include/i386-linux-gnu/bits/stat.h
UTIME_NOW  = ((1l << 30) - 1l)
UTIME_OMIT = ((1l << 30) - 2l)
now  = c_timespec(0,UTIME_NOW)
omit = c_timespec(0,UTIME_OMIT)

# wrappers
def update_atime(fileno):
        assert(isinstance(fileno, int))
        libc.futimens(fileno, byref(c_utimbuf(now, omit)))
def update_mtime(fileno):
        assert(isinstance(fileno, int))
        libc.futimens(fileno, byref(c_utimbuf(omit, now)))

# usage example:
#
# f = open("/tmp/test")
# update_mtime(f.fileno())

回答 5

自从发布Python-2.5关键字以来,此答案与所有​​版本兼容with

1.如果不存在则创建文件+设置当前时间
(与command完全相同touch

import os

fname = 'directory/filename.txt'
with open(fname, 'a'):     # Create file if does not exist
    os.utime(fname, None)  # Set access/modified times to now
                           # May raise OSError if file does not exist

一个更强大的版本:

import os

with open(fname, 'a'):
  try:                     # Whatever if file was already existing
    os.utime(fname, None)  # => Set current time anyway
  except OSError:
    pass  # File deleted between open() and os.utime() calls

2.如果不存在,则仅创建文件
(不更新时间)

with open(fname, 'a'):  # Create file if does not exist
    pass

3.只需更新文件访问/修改时间
(如果不存在则不创建文件)

import os

try:
    os.utime(fname, None)  # Set access/modified times to now
except OSError:
    pass  # File does not exist (or no permission)

使用os.path.exists()不会简化代码:

from __future__ import (absolute_import, division, print_function)
import os

if os.path.exists(fname):
  try:
    os.utime(fname, None)  # Set access/modified times to now
  except OSError:
    pass  # File deleted between exists() and utime() calls
          # (or no permission)

奖励:目录中所有文件的更新时间

from __future__ import (absolute_import, division, print_function)
import os

number_of_files = 0

#   Current directory which is "walked through"
#   |     Directories in root
#   |     |  Files in root       Working directory
#   |     |  |                     |
for root, _, filenames in os.walk('.'):
  for fname in filenames:
    pathname = os.path.join(root, fname)
    try:
      os.utime(pathname, None)  # Set access/modified times to now
      number_of_files += 1
    except OSError as why:
      print('Cannot change time of %r because %r', pathname, why)

print('Changed time of %i files', number_of_files)

This answer is compatible with all versions since Python-2.5 when keyword with has been released.

1. Create file if does not exist + Set current time
(exactly same as command touch)

import os

fname = 'directory/filename.txt'
with open(fname, 'a'):     # Create file if does not exist
    os.utime(fname, None)  # Set access/modified times to now
                           # May raise OSError if file does not exist

A more robust version:

import os

with open(fname, 'a'):
  try:                     # Whatever if file was already existing
    os.utime(fname, None)  # => Set current time anyway
  except OSError:
    pass  # File deleted between open() and os.utime() calls

2. Just create the file if does not exist
(does not update time)

with open(fname, 'a'):  # Create file if does not exist
    pass

3. Just update file access/modified times
(does not create file if not existing)

import os

try:
    os.utime(fname, None)  # Set access/modified times to now
except OSError:
    pass  # File does not exist (or no permission)

Using os.path.exists() does not simplify the code:

from __future__ import (absolute_import, division, print_function)
import os

if os.path.exists(fname):
  try:
    os.utime(fname, None)  # Set access/modified times to now
  except OSError:
    pass  # File deleted between exists() and utime() calls
          # (or no permission)

Bonus: Update time of all files in a directory

from __future__ import (absolute_import, division, print_function)
import os

number_of_files = 0

#   Current directory which is "walked through"
#   |     Directories in root
#   |     |  Files in root       Working directory
#   |     |  |                     |
for root, _, filenames in os.walk('.'):
  for fname in filenames:
    pathname = os.path.join(root, fname)
    try:
      os.utime(pathname, None)  # Set access/modified times to now
      number_of_files += 1
    except OSError as why:
      print('Cannot change time of %r because %r', pathname, why)

print('Changed time of %i files', number_of_files)

回答 6

with open(file_name,'a') as f: 
    pass
with open(file_name,'a') as f: 
    pass

回答 7

简单化:

def touch(fname):
    open(fname, 'a').close()
    os.utime(fname, None)
  • open确保有一个文件存在
  • utime该时间戳更新,确保

从理论上讲,有人可能会在之后删除文件open,从而导致utime引发异常。但是可以说是可以的,因为确实发生了一些不好的事情。

Simplistic:

def touch(fname):
    open(fname, 'a').close()
    os.utime(fname, None)
  • The open ensures there is a file there
  • the utime ensures that the timestamps are updated

Theoretically, it's possible someone will delete the file after the open, causing utime to raise an exception. But arguably that's OK, since something bad did happen.


回答 8

复杂(可能是越野车):

def utime(fname, atime=None, mtime=None)
    if type(atime) is tuple:
        atime, mtime = atime

    if atime is None or mtime is None:
        statinfo = os.stat(fname)
        if atime is None:
            atime = statinfo.st_atime
        if mtime is None:
            mtime = statinfo.st_mtime

    os.utime(fname, (atime, mtime))


def touch(fname, atime=None, mtime=None):
    if type(atime) is tuple:
        atime, mtime = atime

    open(fname, 'a').close()
    utime(fname, atime, mtime)

这也尝试允许设置访问或修改时间,例如GNU touch。

Complex (possibly buggy):

def utime(fname, atime=None, mtime=None)
    if type(atime) is tuple:
        atime, mtime = atime

    if atime is None or mtime is None:
        statinfo = os.stat(fname)
        if atime is None:
            atime = statinfo.st_atime
        if mtime is None:
            mtime = statinfo.st_mtime

    os.utime(fname, (atime, mtime))


def touch(fname, atime=None, mtime=None):
    if type(atime) is tuple:
        atime, mtime = atime

    open(fname, 'a').close()
    utime(fname, atime, mtime)

This tries to also allow setting the access or modification time, like GNU touch.


回答 9

用所需的变量创建一个字符串并将其传递给os.system似乎是合乎逻辑的:

touch = 'touch ' + dir + '/' + fileName
os.system(touch)

这在许多方面都是不够的(例如,它不处理空格),因此请不要这样做。

一种更可靠的方法是使用子过程:

subprocess.call(['touch', os.path.join(dirname, fileName)])

尽管这比使用子shell(使用os.system)要好得多,但它仍然仅适用于快捷脚本。将接受的答案用于跨平台程序。

It might seem logical to create a string with the desired variables, and pass it to os.system:

touch = 'touch ' + dir + '/' + fileName
os.system(touch)

This is inadequate in a number of ways (e.g.,it doesn't handle whitespace), so don't do it.

A more robust method is to use subprocess :

subprocess.call(['touch', os.path.join(dirname, fileName)])

While this is much better than using a subshell (with os.system), it is still only suitable for quick-and-dirty scripts; use the accepted answer for cross-platform programs.


回答 10

“ open(file_name,'a')。close()”在Windows上的Python 2.7中对我不起作用。“ os.utime(file_name,None)”工作得很好。

另外,我还需要递归地触摸目录中某个日期早于某个日期的所有文件。我根据ephemient的非常有用的回复创建了以下关注者。

def touch(file_name):
    # Update the modified timestamp of a file to now.
    if not os.path.exists(file_name):
        return
    try:
        os.utime(file_name, None)
    except Exception:
        open(file_name, 'a').close()

def midas_touch(root_path, older_than=dt.now(), pattern='**', recursive=False):
    '''
    midas_touch updates the modified timestamp of a file or files in a 
                directory (folder)

    Arguements:
        root_path (str): file name or folder name of file-like object to touch
        older_than (datetime): only touch files with datetime older than this 
                   datetime
        pattern (str): filter files with this pattern (ignored if root_path is
                a single file)
        recursive (boolean): search sub-diretories (ignored if root_path is a 
                  single file)
    '''
    # if root_path NOT exist, exit
    if not os.path.exists(root_path):
        return
    # if root_path DOES exist, continue.
    else:
        # if root_path is a directory, touch all files in root_path
        if os.path.isdir(root_path):
            # get a directory list (list of files in directory)
            dir_list=find_files(root_path, pattern='**', recursive=False)
            # loop through list of files
            for f in dir_list:
                # if the file modified date is older thatn older_than, touch the file
                if dt.fromtimestamp(os.path.getmtime(f)) < older_than:
                    touch(f)
                    print "Touched ", f
        # if root_path is a file, touch the file
        else:
            # if the file modified date is older thatn older_than, touch the file
            if dt.fromtimestamp(os.path.getmtime(f)) < older_than:
                touch(root_path)

"open(file_name, 'a').close()" did not work for me in Python 2.7 on Windows. "os.utime(file_name, None)" worked just fine.

Also, I had a need to recursively touch all files in a directory with a date older than some date. I created hte following based on ephemient's very helpful response.

def touch(file_name):
    # Update the modified timestamp of a file to now.
    if not os.path.exists(file_name):
        return
    try:
        os.utime(file_name, None)
    except Exception:
        open(file_name, 'a').close()

def midas_touch(root_path, older_than=dt.now(), pattern='**', recursive=False):
    '''
    midas_touch updates the modified timestamp of a file or files in a 
                directory (folder)

    Arguements:
        root_path (str): file name or folder name of file-like object to touch
        older_than (datetime): only touch files with datetime older than this 
                   datetime
        pattern (str): filter files with this pattern (ignored if root_path is
                a single file)
        recursive (boolean): search sub-diretories (ignored if root_path is a 
                  single file)
    '''
    # if root_path NOT exist, exit
    if not os.path.exists(root_path):
        return
    # if root_path DOES exist, continue.
    else:
        # if root_path is a directory, touch all files in root_path
        if os.path.isdir(root_path):
            # get a directory list (list of files in directory)
            dir_list=find_files(root_path, pattern='**', recursive=False)
            # loop through list of files
            for f in dir_list:
                # if the file modified date is older thatn older_than, touch the file
                if dt.fromtimestamp(os.path.getmtime(f)) < older_than:
                    touch(f)
                    print "Touched ", f
        # if root_path is a file, touch the file
        else:
            # if the file modified date is older thatn older_than, touch the file
            if dt.fromtimestamp(os.path.getmtime(f)) < older_than:
                touch(root_path)

回答 11

你为什么不尝试:newfile.py

#!/usr/bin/env python
import sys
inputfile = sys.argv[1]

with open(inputfile, 'w') as file:
    pass

python newfile.py foobar.txt

要么

使用子过程:

import subprocess
subprocess.call(["touch", "barfoo.txt"])

Why don't you try: newfile.py

#!/usr/bin/env python
import sys
inputfile = sys.argv[1]

with open(inputfile, 'w') as file:
    pass

python newfile.py foobar.txt

or

use subprocess:

import subprocess
subprocess.call(["touch", "barfoo.txt"])

回答 12

以下内容就足够了:

import os
def func(filename):
    if os.path.exists(filename):
        os.utime(filename)
    else:
        with open(filename,'a') as f:
            pass

如果要设置触摸的特定时间,请按以下方式使用os.utime:

os.utime(filename,(atime,mtime))

在这里,atime和mtime都应为int / float,并且应等于以秒为单位的纪元时间到您要设置的时间。

The following is sufficient:

import os
def func(filename):
    if os.path.exists(filename):
        os.utime(filename)
    else:
        with open(filename,'a') as f:
            pass

If you want to set a specific time for touch, use os.utime as follows:

os.utime(filename,(atime,mtime))

Here, atime and mtime both should be int/float and should be equal to epoch time in seconds to the time which you want to set.


回答 13

如果您不介意尝试,那么...

def touch_dir(folder_path):
    try:
        os.mkdir(folder_path)
    except FileExistsError:
        pass

不过要注意的一件事是,如果存在一个具有相同名称的文件,则该文件将无法工作,并且将以静默方式失败。

If you don't mind the try-except then...

def touch_dir(folder_path):
    try:
        os.mkdir(folder_path)
    except FileExistsError:
        pass

One thing to note though, if a file exists with the same name then it won't work and will fail silently.


回答 14

write_text()pathlib.Path可以使用。

>>> from pathlib import Path
>>> Path('aa.txt').write_text("")
0

write_text() from pathlib.Path can be used.

>>> from pathlib import Path
>>> Path('aa.txt').write_text("")
0

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