列表中每个*项目的Django过滤器查询集__in-Python 实用宝典

列表中每个*项目的Django过滤器查询集__in

假设我有以下型号 class Photo(models.Model): tags = models.ManyToManyField(Tag) class Tag(models.Model): name = models.CharField(max_length=50) 在一个视图中,我有一个带有活动过滤器的列表,称为category。我想过滤所有具有类别标签的照片对象。 我试过了: Photo.objects.filter(tags__name__in=categories) 但这匹配类别中的任何项目,而不是所有项目。 因此,如果类别为['holiday','summer'],则我希望Photo带有假日和夏季标签。 能做到吗?

问题:列表中每个*项目的Django过滤器查询集__in

假设我有以下型号

class Photo(models.Model):
    tags = models.ManyToManyField(Tag)

class Tag(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=50)

在一个视图中,我有一个带有活动过滤器的列表,称为category。我想过滤所有具有类别标签的照片对象。

我试过了:

Photo.objects.filter(tags__name__in=categories)

但这匹配类别中的任何项目,而不是所有项目。

因此,如果类别为['holiday','summer'],则我希望Photo带有假日和夏季标签。

能做到吗?

Let's say I have the following models

class Photo(models.Model):
    tags = models.ManyToManyField(Tag)

class Tag(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=50)

In a view I have a list with active filters called categories. I want to filter Photo objects which have all tags present in categories.

I tried:

Photo.objects.filter(tags__name__in=categories)

But this matches any item in categories, not all items.

So if categories would be ['holiday', 'summer'] I want Photo's with both a holiday and summer tag.

Can this be achieved?


回答 0

摘要:

正如jpic和sgallen在评论中所建议的那样,可以.filter()为每个类别添加一个选项。每filter增加一个,就会添加更多的联接,这对于少量的类别来说应该不是问题。

聚合 方法。对于大量类别,此查询将更短,甚至更快。

您还可以选择使用自定义查询


一些例子

测试设置:

class Photo(models.Model):
    tags = models.ManyToManyField('Tag')

class Tag(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=50)

    def __unicode__(self):
        return self.name

In [2]: t1 = Tag.objects.create(name='holiday')
In [3]: t2 = Tag.objects.create(name='summer')
In [4]: p = Photo.objects.create()
In [5]: p.tags.add(t1)
In [6]: p.tags.add(t2)
In [7]: p.tags.all()
Out[7]: [<Tag: holiday>, <Tag: summer>]

使用链接过滤器方法:

In [8]: Photo.objects.filter(tags=t1).filter(tags=t2)
Out[8]: [<Photo: Photo object>]

结果查询:

In [17]: print Photo.objects.filter(tags=t1).filter(tags=t2).query
SELECT "test_photo"."id"
FROM "test_photo"
INNER JOIN "test_photo_tags" ON ("test_photo"."id" = "test_photo_tags"."photo_id")
INNER JOIN "test_photo_tags" T4 ON ("test_photo"."id" = T4."photo_id")
WHERE ("test_photo_tags"."tag_id" = 3  AND T4."tag_id" = 4 )

请注意,每个都为查询filter添加了更多内容JOINS

使用注释 方法

In [29]: from django.db.models import Count
In [30]: Photo.objects.filter(tags__in=[t1, t2]).annotate(num_tags=Count('tags')).filter(num_tags=2)
Out[30]: [<Photo: Photo object>]

结果查询:

In [32]: print Photo.objects.filter(tags__in=[t1, t2]).annotate(num_tags=Count('tags')).filter(num_tags=2).query
SELECT "test_photo"."id", COUNT("test_photo_tags"."tag_id") AS "num_tags"
FROM "test_photo"
LEFT OUTER JOIN "test_photo_tags" ON ("test_photo"."id" = "test_photo_tags"."photo_id")
WHERE ("test_photo_tags"."tag_id" IN (3, 4))
GROUP BY "test_photo"."id", "test_photo"."id"
HAVING COUNT("test_photo_tags"."tag_id") = 2

ANDed Q对象不起作用:

In [9]: from django.db.models import Q
In [10]: Photo.objects.filter(Q(tags__name='holiday') & Q(tags__name='summer'))
Out[10]: []
In [11]: from operator import and_
In [12]: Photo.objects.filter(reduce(and_, [Q(tags__name='holiday'), Q(tags__name='summer')]))
Out[12]: []

结果查询:

In [25]: print Photo.objects.filter(Q(tags__name='holiday') & Q(tags__name='summer')).query
SELECT "test_photo"."id"
FROM "test_photo"
INNER JOIN "test_photo_tags" ON ("test_photo"."id" = "test_photo_tags"."photo_id")
INNER JOIN "test_tag" ON ("test_photo_tags"."tag_id" = "test_tag"."id")
WHERE ("test_tag"."name" = holiday  AND "test_tag"."name" = summer )

Summary:

One option is, as suggested by jpic and sgallen in the comments, to add .filter() for each category. Each additional filter adds more joins, which should not be a problem for small set of categories.

There is the aggregation approach. This query would be shorter and perhaps quicker for a large set of categories.

You also have the option of using custom queries.


Some examples

Test setup:

class Photo(models.Model):
    tags = models.ManyToManyField('Tag')

class Tag(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=50)

    def __unicode__(self):
        return self.name

In [2]: t1 = Tag.objects.create(name='holiday')
In [3]: t2 = Tag.objects.create(name='summer')
In [4]: p = Photo.objects.create()
In [5]: p.tags.add(t1)
In [6]: p.tags.add(t2)
In [7]: p.tags.all()
Out[7]: [<Tag: holiday>, <Tag: summer>]

Using chained filters approach:

In [8]: Photo.objects.filter(tags=t1).filter(tags=t2)
Out[8]: [<Photo: Photo object>]

Resulting query:

In [17]: print Photo.objects.filter(tags=t1).filter(tags=t2).query
SELECT "test_photo"."id"
FROM "test_photo"
INNER JOIN "test_photo_tags" ON ("test_photo"."id" = "test_photo_tags"."photo_id")
INNER JOIN "test_photo_tags" T4 ON ("test_photo"."id" = T4."photo_id")
WHERE ("test_photo_tags"."tag_id" = 3  AND T4."tag_id" = 4 )

Note that each filter adds more JOINS to the query.

Using annotation approach:

In [29]: from django.db.models import Count
In [30]: Photo.objects.filter(tags__in=[t1, t2]).annotate(num_tags=Count('tags')).filter(num_tags=2)
Out[30]: [<Photo: Photo object>]

Resulting query:

In [32]: print Photo.objects.filter(tags__in=[t1, t2]).annotate(num_tags=Count('tags')).filter(num_tags=2).query
SELECT "test_photo"."id", COUNT("test_photo_tags"."tag_id") AS "num_tags"
FROM "test_photo"
LEFT OUTER JOIN "test_photo_tags" ON ("test_photo"."id" = "test_photo_tags"."photo_id")
WHERE ("test_photo_tags"."tag_id" IN (3, 4))
GROUP BY "test_photo"."id", "test_photo"."id"
HAVING COUNT("test_photo_tags"."tag_id") = 2

ANDed Q objects would not work:

In [9]: from django.db.models import Q
In [10]: Photo.objects.filter(Q(tags__name='holiday') & Q(tags__name='summer'))
Out[10]: []
In [11]: from operator import and_
In [12]: Photo.objects.filter(reduce(and_, [Q(tags__name='holiday'), Q(tags__name='summer')]))
Out[12]: []

Resulting query:

In [25]: print Photo.objects.filter(Q(tags__name='holiday') & Q(tags__name='summer')).query
SELECT "test_photo"."id"
FROM "test_photo"
INNER JOIN "test_photo_tags" ON ("test_photo"."id" = "test_photo_tags"."photo_id")
INNER JOIN "test_tag" ON ("test_photo_tags"."tag_id" = "test_tag"."id")
WHERE ("test_tag"."name" = holiday  AND "test_tag"."name" = summer )

回答 1

尽管仅适用于PostgreSQL,另一种有效的方法是使用django.contrib.postgres.fields.ArrayField

docs复制的示例:

>>> Post.objects.create(name='First post', tags=['thoughts', 'django'])
>>> Post.objects.create(name='Second post', tags=['thoughts'])
>>> Post.objects.create(name='Third post', tags=['tutorial', 'django'])

>>> Post.objects.filter(tags__contains=['thoughts'])
<QuerySet [<Post: First post>, <Post: Second post>]>

>>> Post.objects.filter(tags__contains=['django'])
<QuerySet [<Post: First post>, <Post: Third post>]>

>>> Post.objects.filter(tags__contains=['django', 'thoughts'])
<QuerySet [<Post: First post>]>

ArrayField具有一些更强大的功能,例如重叠索引转换

Another approach that works, although PostgreSQL only, is using django.contrib.postgres.fields.ArrayField:

Example copied from docs:

>>> Post.objects.create(name='First post', tags=['thoughts', 'django'])
>>> Post.objects.create(name='Second post', tags=['thoughts'])
>>> Post.objects.create(name='Third post', tags=['tutorial', 'django'])

>>> Post.objects.filter(tags__contains=['thoughts'])
<QuerySet [<Post: First post>, <Post: Second post>]>

>>> Post.objects.filter(tags__contains=['django'])
<QuerySet [<Post: First post>, <Post: Third post>]>

>>> Post.objects.filter(tags__contains=['django', 'thoughts'])
<QuerySet [<Post: First post>]>

ArrayField has some more powerful features such as overlap and index transforms.


回答 2

这也可以通过使用Django ORM和一些Python魔术来动态查询生成来完成:)

from operator import and_
from django.db.models import Q

categories = ['holiday', 'summer']
res = Photo.filter(reduce(and_, [Q(tags__name=c) for c in categories]))

想法是为每个类别生成适当的Q对象,然后使用AND运算符将它们组合到一个QuerySet中。例如,对于您的示例,它等于

res = Photo.filter(Q(tags__name='holiday') & Q(tags__name='summer'))

This also can be done by dynamic query generation using Django ORM and some Python magic 🙂

from operator import and_
from django.db.models import Q

categories = ['holiday', 'summer']
res = Photo.filter(reduce(and_, [Q(tags__name=c) for c in categories]))

The idea is to generate appropriate Q objects for each category and then combine them using AND operator into one QuerySet. E.g. for your example it'd be equal to

res = Photo.filter(Q(tags__name='holiday') & Q(tags__name='summer'))

回答 3

我使用了一个小函数,它为给定的运算符和列名迭代列表上的过滤器:

def exclusive_in (cls,column,operator,value_list):         
    myfilter = column + '__' + operator
    query = cls.objects
    for value in value_list:
        query=query.filter(**{myfilter:value})
    return query  

这个函数可以这样调用:

exclusive_in(Photo,'tags__name','iexact',['holiday','summer'])

它也可以与任何类和列表中的更多标签一起使用;运算符可以是'iexact','in','contains','ne',...等任何人。

I use a little function that iterates filters over a list for a given operator an a column name :

def exclusive_in (cls,column,operator,value_list):         
    myfilter = column + '__' + operator
    query = cls.objects
    for value in value_list:
        query=query.filter(**{myfilter:value})
    return query  

and this function can be called like that:

exclusive_in(Photo,'tags__name','iexact',['holiday','summer'])

it also work with any class and more tags in the list; operators can be anyone like 'iexact','in','contains','ne',...


回答 4

queryset = Photo.objects.filter(tags__name="vacaciones") | Photo.objects.filter(tags__name="verano")
queryset = Photo.objects.filter(tags__name="vacaciones") | Photo.objects.filter(tags__name="verano")

回答 5

如果我们想动态地执行此操作,请遵循以下示例:

tag_ids = [t1.id, t2.id]
qs = Photo.objects.all()

for tag_id in tag_ids:
    qs = qs.filter(tag__id=tag_id)    

print qs

If we want to do it dynamically, followed the example:

tag_ids = [t1.id, t2.id]
qs = Photo.objects.all()

for tag_id in tag_ids:
    qs = qs.filter(tag__id=tag_id)    

print qs

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