在类方法上使用property()-Python 实用宝典

在类方法上使用property()

我有一个带有两个类方法的类(使用classmethod()函数),用于获取和设置本质上是静态变量的东西。我试图将property()函数与这些函数一起使用,但是会导致错误。我能够在解释器中使用以下代码重现该错误: class Foo(object): _var = 5 @classmethod def getvar(cls): return cls._var @classmethod def setvar(cls, value): cls._var = value var = property(getvar, setvar) 我可以演示类方法,但是它们不能用作属性: >>> f = Foo() >>> f.getvar() 5 >>> f.setvar(4) >>> f.getvar() 4 >>> f.var Traceback (most recent call last): File "<stdin>", line 1, in ? TypeError: 'classmethod' …

问题:在类方法上使用property()

我有一个带有两个类方法的类(使用classmethod()函数),用于获取和设置本质上是静态变量的东西。我试图将property()函数与这些函数一起使用,但是会导致错误。我能够在解释器中使用以下代码重现该错误:

class Foo(object):
    _var = 5
    @classmethod
    def getvar(cls):
        return cls._var
    @classmethod
    def setvar(cls, value):
        cls._var = value
    var = property(getvar, setvar)

我可以演示类方法,但是它们不能用作属性:

>>> f = Foo()
>>> f.getvar()
5
>>> f.setvar(4)
>>> f.getvar()
4
>>> f.var
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in ?
TypeError: 'classmethod' object is not callable
>>> f.var=5
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in ?
TypeError: 'classmethod' object is not callable

是否可以将property()函数与装饰有类方法的函数一起使用?

I have a class with two class methods (using the classmethod() function) for getting and setting what is essentially a static variable. I tried to use the property() function with these, but it results in an error. I was able to reproduce the error with the following in the interpreter:

class Foo(object):
    _var = 5
    @classmethod
    def getvar(cls):
        return cls._var
    @classmethod
    def setvar(cls, value):
        cls._var = value
    var = property(getvar, setvar)

I can demonstrate the class methods, but they don't work as properties:

>>> f = Foo()
>>> f.getvar()
5
>>> f.setvar(4)
>>> f.getvar()
4
>>> f.var
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in ?
TypeError: 'classmethod' object is not callable
>>> f.var=5
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in ?
TypeError: 'classmethod' object is not callable

Is it possible to use the property() function with classmethod decorated functions?


回答 0

属性是在类上创建的,但会影响实例。因此,如果要使用classmethod属性,请在元类上创建该属性。

>>> class foo(object):
...     _var = 5
...     class __metaclass__(type):  # Python 2 syntax for metaclasses
...         pass
...     @classmethod
...     def getvar(cls):
...         return cls._var
...     @classmethod
...     def setvar(cls, value):
...         cls._var = value
...     
>>> foo.__metaclass__.var = property(foo.getvar.im_func, foo.setvar.im_func)
>>> foo.var
5
>>> foo.var = 3
>>> foo.var
3

但是由于无论如何都使用元类,所以只要将类方法移入其中,它就会更好看。

>>> class foo(object):
...     _var = 5
...     class __metaclass__(type):  # Python 2 syntax for metaclasses
...         @property
...         def var(cls):
...             return cls._var
...         @var.setter
...         def var(cls, value):
...             cls._var = value
... 
>>> foo.var
5
>>> foo.var = 3
>>> foo.var
3

或者,使用Python 3的metaclass=...语法,在foo类主体外部定义的元类,以及负责设置初始值的元类_var

>>> class foo_meta(type):
...     def __init__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
...         cls._var = 5
...     @property
...     def var(cls):
...         return cls._var
...     @var.setter
...     def var(cls, value):
...         cls._var = value
...
>>> class foo(metaclass=foo_meta):
...     pass
...
>>> foo.var
5
>>> foo.var = 3
>>> foo.var
3

A property is created on a class but affects an instance. So if you want a classmethod property, create the property on the metaclass.

>>> class foo(object):
...     _var = 5
...     class __metaclass__(type):  # Python 2 syntax for metaclasses
...         pass
...     @classmethod
...     def getvar(cls):
...         return cls._var
...     @classmethod
...     def setvar(cls, value):
...         cls._var = value
...     
>>> foo.__metaclass__.var = property(foo.getvar.im_func, foo.setvar.im_func)
>>> foo.var
5
>>> foo.var = 3
>>> foo.var
3

But since you're using a metaclass anyway, it will read better if you just move the classmethods in there.

>>> class foo(object):
...     _var = 5
...     class __metaclass__(type):  # Python 2 syntax for metaclasses
...         @property
...         def var(cls):
...             return cls._var
...         @var.setter
...         def var(cls, value):
...             cls._var = value
... 
>>> foo.var
5
>>> foo.var = 3
>>> foo.var
3

or, using Python 3's metaclass=... syntax, and the metaclass defined outside of the foo class body, and the metaclass responsible for setting the initial value of _var:

>>> class foo_meta(type):
...     def __init__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
...         cls._var = 5
...     @property
...     def var(cls):
...         return cls._var
...     @var.setter
...     def var(cls, value):
...         cls._var = value
...
>>> class foo(metaclass=foo_meta):
...     pass
...
>>> foo.var
5
>>> foo.var = 3
>>> foo.var
3

回答 1

阅读Python 2.2发行说明,我发现以下内容。

当作为类属性(Cx)而不是实例属性(C()。x)访问该属性时,将不会调用[属性的] get方法。如果要在用作类属性时覆盖属性的__get__操作,则可以子类化属性-它本身是一种新型类型-扩展其__get__方法,或者可以通过创建新的属性来从头定义描述符类型风格的类,它定义__get __,__ set__和__delete__方法。

注意:以下方法实际上不适用于setter方法,仅适用于getter方法。

因此,我相信规定的解决方案是创建一个ClassProperty作为属性的子类。

class ClassProperty(property):
    def __get__(self, cls, owner):
        return self.fget.__get__(None, owner)()

class foo(object):
    _var=5
    def getvar(cls):
        return cls._var
    getvar=classmethod(getvar)
    def setvar(cls,value):
        cls._var=value
    setvar=classmethod(setvar)
    var=ClassProperty(getvar,setvar)

assert foo.getvar() == 5
foo.setvar(4)
assert foo.getvar() == 4
assert foo.var == 4
foo.var = 3
assert foo.var == 3

但是,设置员实际上不起作用:

foo.var = 4
assert foo.var == foo._var # raises AssertionError

foo._var 保持不变,您只需用新值覆盖属性即可。

您还可以ClassProperty用作装饰器:

class foo(object):
    _var = 5

    @ClassProperty
    @classmethod
    def var(cls):
        return cls._var

    @var.setter
    @classmethod
    def var(cls, value):
        cls._var = value

assert foo.var == 5

Reading the Python 2.2 release notes, I find the following.

The get method [of a property] won't be called when the property is accessed as a class attribute (C.x) instead of as an instance attribute (C().x). If you want to override the __get__ operation for properties when used as a class attribute, you can subclass property - it is a new-style type itself - to extend its __get__ method, or you can define a descriptor type from scratch by creating a new-style class that defines __get__, __set__ and __delete__ methods.

NOTE: The below method doesn't actually work for setters, only getters.

Therefore, I believe the prescribed solution is to create a ClassProperty as a subclass of property.

class ClassProperty(property):
    def __get__(self, cls, owner):
        return self.fget.__get__(None, owner)()

class foo(object):
    _var=5
    def getvar(cls):
        return cls._var
    getvar=classmethod(getvar)
    def setvar(cls,value):
        cls._var=value
    setvar=classmethod(setvar)
    var=ClassProperty(getvar,setvar)

assert foo.getvar() == 5
foo.setvar(4)
assert foo.getvar() == 4
assert foo.var == 4
foo.var = 3
assert foo.var == 3

However, the setters don't actually work:

foo.var = 4
assert foo.var == foo._var # raises AssertionError

foo._var is unchanged, you've simply overwritten the property with a new value.

You can also use ClassProperty as a decorator:

class foo(object):
    _var = 5

    @ClassProperty
    @classmethod
    def var(cls):
        return cls._var

    @var.setter
    @classmethod
    def var(cls, value):
        cls._var = value

assert foo.var == 5

回答 2

我希望这个简单的只读@classproperty装饰器可以帮助寻找类属性的人。

class classproperty(object):

    def __init__(self, fget):
        self.fget = fget

    def __get__(self, owner_self, owner_cls):
        return self.fget(owner_cls)

class C(object):

    @classproperty
    def x(cls):
        return 1

assert C.x == 1
assert C().x == 1

I hope this dead-simple read-only @classproperty decorator would help somebody looking for classproperties.

class classproperty(object):

    def __init__(self, fget):
        self.fget = fget

    def __get__(self, owner_self, owner_cls):
        return self.fget(owner_cls)

class C(object):

    @classproperty
    def x(cls):
        return 1

assert C.x == 1
assert C().x == 1

回答 3

是否可以将property()函数与装饰有类方法的函数一起使用?

没有。

但是,类方法只是从类的实例可访问的类上的绑定方法(部分函数)。

由于实例是类的函数,并且您可以从实例派生该类,因此您可以使用property

class Example(object):
    _class_property = None
    @property
    def class_property(self):
        return self._class_property
    @class_property.setter
    def class_property(self, value):
        type(self)._class_property = value
    @class_property.deleter
    def class_property(self):
        del type(self)._class_property

此代码可用于测试-它应该通过而不会引起任何错误:

ex1 = Example()
ex2 = Example()
ex1.class_property = None
ex2.class_property = 'Example'
assert ex1.class_property is ex2.class_property
del ex2.class_property
assert not hasattr(ex1, 'class_property')

请注意,我们根本不需要元类-而且您也不会直接通过其类的实例直接访问元类。

写一个@classproperty装饰

实际上,您可以classproperty通过子类化在几行代码中创建一个装饰器property(它是用C实现的,但是您可以在此处看到等效的Python ):

class classproperty(property):
    def __get__(self, obj, objtype=None):
        return super(classproperty, self).__get__(objtype)
    def __set__(self, obj, value):
        super(classproperty, self).__set__(type(obj), value)
    def __delete__(self, obj):
        super(classproperty, self).__delete__(type(obj))

然后,将装饰器视为结合了属性的类方法:

class Foo(object):
    _bar = 5
    @classproperty
    def bar(cls):
        """this is the bar attribute - each subclass of Foo gets its own.
        Lookups should follow the method resolution order.
        """
        return cls._bar
    @bar.setter
    def bar(cls, value):
        cls._bar = value
    @bar.deleter
    def bar(cls):
        del cls._bar

这段代码应该可以正常工作:

def main():
    f = Foo()
    print(f.bar)
    f.bar = 4
    print(f.bar)
    del f.bar
    try:
        f.bar
    except AttributeError:
        pass
    else:
        raise RuntimeError('f.bar must have worked - inconceivable!')
    help(f)  # includes the Foo.bar help.
    f.bar = 5

    class Bar(Foo):
        "a subclass of Foo, nothing more"
    help(Bar) # includes the Foo.bar help!
    b = Bar()
    b.bar = 'baz'
    print(b.bar) # prints baz
    del b.bar
    print(b.bar) # prints 5 - looked up from Foo!

    
if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()

但是我不确定这将是多么明智。旧的邮件列表文章建议它不起作用。

使该属性在类上起作用:

上面的缺点是无法从类中访问“类属性”,因为它只会覆盖类中的数据描述符__dict__

但是,我们可以使用metaclass中定义的属性来覆盖它__dict__。例如:

class MetaWithFooClassProperty(type):
    @property
    def foo(cls):
        """The foo property is a function of the class -
        in this case, the trivial case of the identity function.
        """
        return cls

然后,元类的类实例可以具有一个属性,该属性使用前面部分中已经说明的原理来访问类的属性:

class FooClassProperty(metaclass=MetaWithFooClassProperty):
    @property
    def foo(self):
        """access the class's property"""
        return type(self).foo

现在我们看到两个实例

>>> FooClassProperty().foo
<class '__main__.FooClassProperty'>

和Class

>>> FooClassProperty.foo
<class '__main__.FooClassProperty'>

有权访问class属性。

Is it possible to use the property() function with classmethod decorated functions?

No.

However, a classmethod is simply a bound method (a partial function) on a class accessible from instances of that class.

Since the instance is a function of the class and you can derive the class from the instance, you can can get whatever desired behavior you might want from a class-property with property:

class Example(object):
    _class_property = None
    @property
    def class_property(self):
        return self._class_property
    @class_property.setter
    def class_property(self, value):
        type(self)._class_property = value
    @class_property.deleter
    def class_property(self):
        del type(self)._class_property

This code can be used to test - it should pass without raising any errors:

ex1 = Example()
ex2 = Example()
ex1.class_property = None
ex2.class_property = 'Example'
assert ex1.class_property is ex2.class_property
del ex2.class_property
assert not hasattr(ex1, 'class_property')

And note that we didn't need metaclasses at all - and you don't directly access a metaclass through its classes' instances anyways.

writing a @classproperty decorator

You can actually create a classproperty decorator in just a few lines of code by subclassing property (it's implemented in C, but you can see equivalent Python here):

class classproperty(property):
    def __get__(self, obj, objtype=None):
        return super(classproperty, self).__get__(objtype)
    def __set__(self, obj, value):
        super(classproperty, self).__set__(type(obj), value)
    def __delete__(self, obj):
        super(classproperty, self).__delete__(type(obj))

Then treat the decorator as if it were a classmethod combined with property:

class Foo(object):
    _bar = 5
    @classproperty
    def bar(cls):
        """this is the bar attribute - each subclass of Foo gets its own.
        Lookups should follow the method resolution order.
        """
        return cls._bar
    @bar.setter
    def bar(cls, value):
        cls._bar = value
    @bar.deleter
    def bar(cls):
        del cls._bar

And this code should work without errors:

def main():
    f = Foo()
    print(f.bar)
    f.bar = 4
    print(f.bar)
    del f.bar
    try:
        f.bar
    except AttributeError:
        pass
    else:
        raise RuntimeError('f.bar must have worked - inconceivable!')
    help(f)  # includes the Foo.bar help.
    f.bar = 5

    class Bar(Foo):
        "a subclass of Foo, nothing more"
    help(Bar) # includes the Foo.bar help!
    b = Bar()
    b.bar = 'baz'
    print(b.bar) # prints baz
    del b.bar
    print(b.bar) # prints 5 - looked up from Foo!

    
if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()

But I'm not sure how well-advised this would be. An old mailing list article suggests it shouldn't work.

Getting the property to work on the class:

The downside of the above is that the "class property" isn't accessible from the class, because it would simply overwrite the data descriptor from the class __dict__.

However, we can override this with a property defined in the metaclass __dict__. For example:

class MetaWithFooClassProperty(type):
    @property
    def foo(cls):
        """The foo property is a function of the class -
        in this case, the trivial case of the identity function.
        """
        return cls

And then a class instance of the metaclass could have a property that accesses the class's property using the principle already demonstrated in the prior sections:

class FooClassProperty(metaclass=MetaWithFooClassProperty):
    @property
    def foo(self):
        """access the class's property"""
        return type(self).foo

And now we see both the instance

>>> FooClassProperty().foo
<class '__main__.FooClassProperty'>

and the class

>>> FooClassProperty.foo
<class '__main__.FooClassProperty'>

have access to the class property.


回答 4

Python 3!

老问题,很多观点,迫切需要一种真正的Python 3方法。

幸运的是,使用metaclasskwarg 很容易:

class FooProperties(type):

    @property
    def var(cls):
        return cls._var

class Foo(object, metaclass=FooProperties):
    _var = 'FOO!'

然后, >>> Foo.var

“ F!”

Python 3!

Old question, lots of views, sorely in need of a one-true Python 3 way.

Luckily, it's easy with the metaclass kwarg:

class FooProperties(type):

    @property
    def var(cls):
        return cls._var

class Foo(object, metaclass=FooProperties):
    _var = 'FOO!'

Then, >>> Foo.var

'FOO!'


回答 5

没有合理的方法可以使此“类属性”系统在Python中运行。

这是使其工作的一种不合理的方法。当然,您可以通过增加大量的元类魔术来使其变得更加无缝。

class ClassProperty(object):
    def __init__(self, getter, setter):
        self.getter = getter
        self.setter = setter
    def __get__(self, cls, owner):
        return getattr(cls, self.getter)()
    def __set__(self, cls, value):
        getattr(cls, self.setter)(value)

class MetaFoo(type):
    var = ClassProperty('getvar', 'setvar')

class Foo(object):
    __metaclass__ = MetaFoo
    _var = 5
    @classmethod
    def getvar(cls):
        print "Getting var =", cls._var
        return cls._var
    @classmethod
    def setvar(cls, value):
        print "Setting var =", value
        cls._var = value

x = Foo.var
print "Foo.var = ", x
Foo.var = 42
x = Foo.var
print "Foo.var = ", x

问题的根源在于属性是Python所谓的“描述符”。没有简单快捷的方法来解释这种元编程的工作原理,因此我必须将您指向描述符howto

如果您要实现相当高级的框架,则只需要了解这种情况即可。就像透明的对象持久性或RPC系统,或一种特定于域的语言。

但是,在对上一个答案的评论中,您说

需要修改一个属性,该属性可以被类的所有实例看到,并且在调用这些类方法的范围内,该属性不具有对该类所有实例的引用。

在我看来,您真正想要的是观察者设计模式。

There is no reasonable way to make this "class property" system to work in Python.

Here is one unreasonable way to make it work. You can certainly make it more seamless with increasing amounts of metaclass magic.

class ClassProperty(object):
    def __init__(self, getter, setter):
        self.getter = getter
        self.setter = setter
    def __get__(self, cls, owner):
        return getattr(cls, self.getter)()
    def __set__(self, cls, value):
        getattr(cls, self.setter)(value)

class MetaFoo(type):
    var = ClassProperty('getvar', 'setvar')

class Foo(object):
    __metaclass__ = MetaFoo
    _var = 5
    @classmethod
    def getvar(cls):
        print "Getting var =", cls._var
        return cls._var
    @classmethod
    def setvar(cls, value):
        print "Setting var =", value
        cls._var = value

x = Foo.var
print "Foo.var = ", x
Foo.var = 42
x = Foo.var
print "Foo.var = ", x

The knot of the issue is that properties are what Python calls "descriptors". There is no short and easy way to explain how this sort of metaprogramming works, so I must point you to the descriptor howto.

You only ever need to understand this sort of things if you are implementing a fairly advanced framework. Like a transparent object persistence or RPC system, or a kind of domain-specific language.

However, in a comment to a previous answer, you say that you

need to modify an attribute that in such a way that is seen by all instances of a class, and in the scope from which these class methods are called does not have references to all instances of the class.

It seems to me, what you really want is an Observer design pattern.


回答 6

如果您想通过实例化的对象访问class属性,则仅在meta类上设置它无济于事,在这种情况下,您还需要在该对象上安装一个常规属性(该属性将分派到class属性)。我认为以下内容更加清楚:

#!/usr/bin/python

class classproperty(property):
    def __get__(self, obj, type_):
        return self.fget.__get__(None, type_)()

    def __set__(self, obj, value):
        cls = type(obj)
        return self.fset.__get__(None, cls)(value)

class A (object):

    _foo = 1

    @classproperty
    @classmethod
    def foo(cls):
        return cls._foo

    @foo.setter
    @classmethod
    def foo(cls, value):
        cls.foo = value

a = A()

print a.foo

b = A()

print b.foo

b.foo = 5

print a.foo

A.foo = 10

print b.foo

print A.foo

Setting it only on the meta class doesn't help if you want to access the class property via an instantiated object, in this case you need to install a normal property on the object as well (which dispatches to the class property). I think the following is a bit more clear:

#!/usr/bin/python

class classproperty(property):
    def __get__(self, obj, type_):
        return self.fget.__get__(None, type_)()

    def __set__(self, obj, value):
        cls = type(obj)
        return self.fset.__get__(None, cls)(value)

class A (object):

    _foo = 1

    @classproperty
    @classmethod
    def foo(cls):
        return cls._foo

    @foo.setter
    @classmethod
    def foo(cls, value):
        cls.foo = value

a = A()

print a.foo

b = A()

print b.foo

b.foo = 5

print a.foo

A.foo = 10

print b.foo

print A.foo

回答 7

半个解决方案,在类上__set__仍然无效。解决方案是实现属性和静态方法的自定义属性类

class ClassProperty(object):
    def __init__(self, fget, fset):
        self.fget = fget
        self.fset = fset

    def __get__(self, instance, owner):
        return self.fget()

    def __set__(self, instance, value):
        self.fset(value)

class Foo(object):
    _bar = 1
    def get_bar():
        print 'getting'
        return Foo._bar

    def set_bar(value):
        print 'setting'
        Foo._bar = value

    bar = ClassProperty(get_bar, set_bar)

f = Foo()
#__get__ works
f.bar
Foo.bar

f.bar = 2
Foo.bar = 3 #__set__ does not

Half a solution, __set__ on the class does not work, still. The solution is a custom property class implementing both a property and a staticmethod

class ClassProperty(object):
    def __init__(self, fget, fset):
        self.fget = fget
        self.fset = fset

    def __get__(self, instance, owner):
        return self.fget()

    def __set__(self, instance, value):
        self.fset(value)

class Foo(object):
    _bar = 1
    def get_bar():
        print 'getting'
        return Foo._bar

    def set_bar(value):
        print 'setting'
        Foo._bar = value

    bar = ClassProperty(get_bar, set_bar)

f = Foo()
#__get__ works
f.bar
Foo.bar

f.bar = 2
Foo.bar = 3 #__set__ does not

回答 8

因为我需要修改一个属性,使得该属性可以被类的所有实例看到,并且在调用这些类方法的范围内,不能引用该类的所有实例。

您是否有权访问该类的至少一个实例?我可以想到一种方法:

class MyClass (object):
    __var = None

    def _set_var (self, value):
        type (self).__var = value

    def _get_var (self):
        return self.__var

    var = property (_get_var, _set_var)

a = MyClass ()
b = MyClass ()
a.var = "foo"
print b.var

Because I need to modify an attribute that in such a way that is seen by all instances of a class, and in the scope from which these class methods are called does not have references to all instances of the class.

Do you have access to at least one instance of the class? I can think of a way to do it then:

class MyClass (object):
    __var = None

    def _set_var (self, value):
        type (self).__var = value

    def _get_var (self):
        return self.__var

    var = property (_get_var, _set_var)

a = MyClass ()
b = MyClass ()
a.var = "foo"
print b.var

回答 9

试试看,无需更改/添加大量现有代码即可完成工作。

>>> class foo(object):
...     _var = 5
...     def getvar(cls):
...         return cls._var
...     getvar = classmethod(getvar)
...     def setvar(cls, value):
...         cls._var = value
...     setvar = classmethod(setvar)
...     var = property(lambda self: self.getvar(), lambda self, val: self.setvar(val))
...
>>> f = foo()
>>> f.var
5
>>> f.var = 3
>>> f.var
3

property函数需要两个callable参数。给他们lambda包装器(它将实例作为第一个参数传递),一切都很好。

Give this a try, it gets the job done without having to change/add a lot of existing code.

>>> class foo(object):
...     _var = 5
...     def getvar(cls):
...         return cls._var
...     getvar = classmethod(getvar)
...     def setvar(cls, value):
...         cls._var = value
...     setvar = classmethod(setvar)
...     var = property(lambda self: self.getvar(), lambda self, val: self.setvar(val))
...
>>> f = foo()
>>> f.var
5
>>> f.var = 3
>>> f.var
3

The property function needs two callable arguments. give them lambda wrappers (which it passes the instance as its first argument) and all is well.


回答 10

这是一个既可以通过类访问又可以通过使用元类的实例访问的解决方案。

In [1]: class ClassPropertyMeta(type):
   ...:     @property
   ...:     def prop(cls):
   ...:         return cls._prop
   ...:     def __new__(cls, name, parents, dct):
   ...:         # This makes overriding __getattr__ and __setattr__ in the class impossible, but should be fixable
   ...:         dct['__getattr__'] = classmethod(lambda cls, attr: getattr(cls, attr))
   ...:         dct['__setattr__'] = classmethod(lambda cls, attr, val: setattr(cls, attr, val))
   ...:         return super(ClassPropertyMeta, cls).__new__(cls, name, parents, dct)
   ...:

In [2]: class ClassProperty(object):
   ...:     __metaclass__ = ClassPropertyMeta
   ...:     _prop = 42
   ...:     def __getattr__(self, attr):
   ...:         raise Exception('Never gets called')
   ...:

In [3]: ClassProperty.prop
Out[3]: 42

In [4]: ClassProperty.prop = 1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
AttributeError                            Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-4-e2e8b423818a> in <module>()
----> 1 ClassProperty.prop = 1

AttributeError: can't set attribute

In [5]: cp = ClassProperty()

In [6]: cp.prop
Out[6]: 42

In [7]: cp.prop = 1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
AttributeError                            Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-7-e8284a3ee950> in <module>()
----> 1 cp.prop = 1

<ipython-input-1-16b7c320d521> in <lambda>(cls, attr, val)
      6         # This makes overriding __getattr__ and __setattr__ in the class impossible, but should be fixable
      7         dct['__getattr__'] = classmethod(lambda cls, attr: getattr(cls, attr))
----> 8         dct['__setattr__'] = classmethod(lambda cls, attr, val: setattr(cls, attr, val))
      9         return super(ClassPropertyMeta, cls).__new__(cls, name, parents, dct)

AttributeError: can't set attribute

这也适用于在元类中定义的设置器。

Here's a solution which should work for both access via the class and access via an instance which uses a metaclass.

In [1]: class ClassPropertyMeta(type):
   ...:     @property
   ...:     def prop(cls):
   ...:         return cls._prop
   ...:     def __new__(cls, name, parents, dct):
   ...:         # This makes overriding __getattr__ and __setattr__ in the class impossible, but should be fixable
   ...:         dct['__getattr__'] = classmethod(lambda cls, attr: getattr(cls, attr))
   ...:         dct['__setattr__'] = classmethod(lambda cls, attr, val: setattr(cls, attr, val))
   ...:         return super(ClassPropertyMeta, cls).__new__(cls, name, parents, dct)
   ...:

In [2]: class ClassProperty(object):
   ...:     __metaclass__ = ClassPropertyMeta
   ...:     _prop = 42
   ...:     def __getattr__(self, attr):
   ...:         raise Exception('Never gets called')
   ...:

In [3]: ClassProperty.prop
Out[3]: 42

In [4]: ClassProperty.prop = 1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
AttributeError                            Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-4-e2e8b423818a> in <module>()
----> 1 ClassProperty.prop = 1

AttributeError: can't set attribute

In [5]: cp = ClassProperty()

In [6]: cp.prop
Out[6]: 42

In [7]: cp.prop = 1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
AttributeError                            Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-7-e8284a3ee950> in <module>()
----> 1 cp.prop = 1

<ipython-input-1-16b7c320d521> in <lambda>(cls, attr, val)
      6         # This makes overriding __getattr__ and __setattr__ in the class impossible, but should be fixable
      7         dct['__getattr__'] = classmethod(lambda cls, attr: getattr(cls, attr))
----> 8         dct['__setattr__'] = classmethod(lambda cls, attr, val: setattr(cls, attr, val))
      9         return super(ClassPropertyMeta, cls).__new__(cls, name, parents, dct)

AttributeError: can't set attribute

This also works with a setter defined in the metaclass.


回答 11

在搜索了不同的位置后,我找到了一种方法,该方法定义一个在Python 2和3中有效的类属性。

from future.utils import with_metaclass

class BuilderMetaClass(type):
    @property
    def load_namespaces(self):
        return (self.__sourcepath__)

class BuilderMixin(with_metaclass(BuilderMetaClass, object)):
    __sourcepath__ = 'sp'        

print(BuilderMixin.load_namespaces)

希望这可以帮助某人:)

After searching different places, I found a method to define a classproperty valid with Python 2 and 3.

from future.utils import with_metaclass

class BuilderMetaClass(type):
    @property
    def load_namespaces(self):
        return (self.__sourcepath__)

class BuilderMixin(with_metaclass(BuilderMetaClass, object)):
    __sourcepath__ = 'sp'        

print(BuilderMixin.load_namespaces)

Hope this can help somebody 🙂


回答 12

这是我的建议。不要使用类方法。

说真的

在这种情况下使用类方法的原因是什么?为什么不具有普通类的普通对象?


如果您只是想更改值,那么属性不是真的很有帮助吗?只需设置属性值并完成操作即可。

仅在需要隐藏某些内容时才使用属性-在将来的实现中可能会更改的内容。

也许您的示例被精简了,但您还没有进行一些令人毛骨悚然的计算。但是,该属性看起来并没有带来明显的价值。

受Java影响的“隐私”技术(在Python中,以_开头的属性名称)并不是很有帮助。私人来自谁?当您拥有源代码时(就像在Python中一样),私有点有点模糊。

Java风格的EJB风格的getter和setter(通常在Python中作为属性完成)在那里可以促进Java的原始自省以及将静态语言编译器传递到集合。所有这些getter和setter在Python中都没有帮助。

Here's my suggestion. Don't use class methods.

Seriously.

What's the reason for using class methods in this case? Why not have an ordinary object of an ordinary class?


If you simply want to change the value, a property isn't really very helpful is it? Just set the attribute value and be done with it.

A property should only be used if there's something to conceal -- something that might change in a future implementation.

Maybe your example is way stripped down, and there is some hellish calculation you've left off. But it doesn't look like the property adds significant value.

The Java-influenced "privacy" techniques (in Python, attribute names that begin with _) aren't really very helpful. Private from whom? The point of private is a little nebulous when you have the source (as you do in Python.)

The Java-influenced EJB-style getters and setters (often done as properties in Python) are there to facilitate Java's primitive introspection as well as to pass muster with the static language compiler. All those getters and setters aren't as helpful in Python.


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