在Python中将列表成对迭代(当前,下一个)-Python 实用宝典

在Python中将列表成对迭代(当前,下一个)

有时我需要在Python中迭代一个列表,以查看“当前”元素和“下一个”元素。到目前为止,我已经使用以下代码完成了此操作: for current, next in zip(the_list, the_list[1:]): # Do something 这行得通,符合我的期望,但是有没有一种更惯用或有效的方式来执行相同的操作?

问题:在Python中将列表成对迭代(当前,下一个)

有时我需要在Python中迭代一个列表,以查看“当前”元素和“下一个”元素。到目前为止,我已经使用以下代码完成了此操作:

for current, next in zip(the_list, the_list[1:]):
    # Do something

这行得通,符合我的期望,但是有没有一种更惯用或有效的方式来执行相同的操作?

I sometimes need to iterate a list in Python looking at the "current" element and the "next" element. I have, till now, done so with code like:

for current, next in zip(the_list, the_list[1:]):
    # Do something

This works and does what I expect, but is there's a more idiomatic or efficient way to do the same thing?


回答 0

这是itertools模块文档中的一个相关示例:

import itertools
def pairwise(iterable):
    "s -> (s0,s1), (s1,s2), (s2, s3), ..."
    a, b = itertools.tee(iterable)
    next(b, None)
    return zip(a, b)   

对于Python 2,您需要itertools.izip代替zip

import itertools
def pairwise(iterable):
    "s -> (s0,s1), (s1,s2), (s2, s3), ..."
    a, b = itertools.tee(iterable)
    next(b, None)
    return itertools.izip(a, b)

工作原理:

首先,创建两个并行的迭代器,a并将b它们(tee()称为调用)都指向原始可迭代的第一个元素。第二个迭代器b向前移动1个(next(b, None))调用。此时指向as0并b指向s1。双方ab可以独立遍历原来迭代器-的izip函数接受两个迭代器,使对返回的元素,以相同的速度前进的两个迭代器。

一个警告:该tee()函数产生两个可以彼此独立进行的迭代器,但这要付出一定的代价。如果一个迭代器比另一个迭代器前进得更多,则tee() 需要将消耗的元素保留在内存中,直到第二个迭代器也将它们消耗掉为止(它不能“倒回”原始迭代器)。这里没有关系,因为一个迭代器仅比另一个迭代器领先1步,但是通常很容易以这种方式使用大量内存。

而且由于tee()可以接受n参数,因此它也可以用于两个以上的并行迭代器:

def threes(iterator):
    "s -> (s0,s1,s2), (s1,s2,s3), (s2, s3,4), ..."
    a, b, c = itertools.tee(iterator, 3)
    next(b, None)
    next(c, None)
    next(c, None)
    return zip(a, b, c)

Here's a relevant example from the itertools module docs:

import itertools
def pairwise(iterable):
    "s -> (s0,s1), (s1,s2), (s2, s3), ..."
    a, b = itertools.tee(iterable)
    next(b, None)
    return zip(a, b)   

For Python 2, you need itertools.izip instead of zip:

import itertools
def pairwise(iterable):
    "s -> (s0,s1), (s1,s2), (s2, s3), ..."
    a, b = itertools.tee(iterable)
    next(b, None)
    return itertools.izip(a, b)

How this works:

First, two parallel iterators, a and b are created (the tee() call), both pointing to the first element of the original iterable. The second iterator, b is moved 1 step forward (the next(b, None)) call). At this point a points to s0 and b points to s1. Both a and b can traverse the original iterator independently - the izip function takes the two iterators and makes pairs of the returned elements, advancing both iterators at the same pace.

One caveat: the tee() function produces two iterators that can advance independently of each other, but it comes at a cost. If one of the iterators advances further than the other, then tee() needs to keep the consumed elements in memory until the second iterator comsumes them too (it cannot 'rewind' the original iterator). Here it doesn't matter because one iterator is only 1 step ahead of the other, but in general it's easy to use a lot of memory this way.

And since tee() can take an n parameter, this can also be used for more than two parallel iterators:

def threes(iterator):
    "s -> (s0,s1,s2), (s1,s2,s3), (s2, s3,4), ..."
    a, b, c = itertools.tee(iterator, 3)
    next(b, None)
    next(c, None)
    next(c, None)
    return zip(a, b, c)

回答 1

自己滚!

def pairwise(iterable):
    it = iter(iterable)
    a = next(it, None)

    for b in it:
        yield (a, b)
        a = b

Roll your own!

def pairwise(iterable):
    it = iter(iterable)
    a = next(it, None)

    for b in it:
        yield (a, b)
        a = b

回答 2

由于the_list[1:]实际上创建了整个列表的副本(不包括其第一个元素),并zip()在调用时立即创建了一个元组列表,因此总共创建了该列表的三个副本。如果您的清单很大,则可能更喜欢

from itertools import izip, islice
for current_item, next_item in izip(the_list, islice(the_list, 1, None)):
    print(current_item, next_item)

根本不会复制列表。

Since the_list[1:] actually creates a copy of the whole list (excluding its first element), and zip() creates a list of tuples immediately when called, in total three copies of your list are created. If your list is very large, you might prefer

from itertools import izip, islice
for current_item, next_item in izip(the_list, islice(the_list, 1, None)):
    print(current_item, next_item)

which does not copy the list at all.


回答 3

我只是将其列出来,我很惊讶没有人想到enumerate()。

for (index, thing) in enumerate(the_list):
    if index < len(the_list):
        current, next_ = thing, the_list[index + 1]
        #do something

I’m just putting this out, I’m very surprised no one has thought of enumerate().

for (index, thing) in enumerate(the_list):
    if index < len(the_list):
        current, next_ = thing, the_list[index + 1]
        #do something

回答 4

通过索引进行迭代可以做同样的事情:

#!/usr/bin/python
the_list = [1, 2, 3, 4]
for i in xrange(len(the_list) - 1):
    current_item, next_item = the_list[i], the_list[i + 1]
    print(current_item, next_item)

输出:

(1, 2)
(2, 3)
(3, 4)

Iterating by index can do the same thing:

#!/usr/bin/python
the_list = [1, 2, 3, 4]
for i in xrange(len(the_list) - 1):
    current_item, next_item = the_list[i], the_list[i + 1]
    print(current_item, next_item)

Output:

(1, 2)
(2, 3)
(3, 4)

回答 5

截至2020年5月16日,这现在是一个简单的导入

from more_itertools import pairwise
for current, next in pairwise(your_iterable):
  print(f'Current = {current}, next = {nxt}')

更多itertools的文档 该代码与其他答案中的代码相同,但我更喜欢在可用时导入。

如果尚未安装,则: pip install more-itertools

例如,如果您有fibbonnacci序列,则可以计算后续对的比率为:

from more_itertools import pairwise
fib= [1,1,2,3,5,8,13]
for current, nxt in pairwise(fib):
    ratio=current/nxt
    print(f'Curent = {current}, next = {nxt}, ratio = {ratio} ')

This is now a simple Import As of 16th May 2020

from more_itertools import pairwise
for current, next in pairwise(your_iterable):
  print(f'Current = {current}, next = {nxt}')

Docs for more-itertools Under the hood this code is the same as that in the other answers, but I much prefer imports when available.

If you don't already have it installed then: pip install more-itertools

Example

For instance if you had the fibbonnacci sequence, you could calculate the ratios of subsequent pairs as:

from more_itertools import pairwise
fib= [1,1,2,3,5,8,13]
for current, nxt in pairwise(fib):
    ratio=current/nxt
    print(f'Curent = {current}, next = {nxt}, ratio = {ratio} ')

回答 6

使用列表理解从列表中配对

the_list = [1, 2, 3, 4]
pairs = [[the_list[i], the_list[i + 1]] for i in range(len(the_list) - 1)]
for [current_item, next_item] in pairs:
    print(current_item, next_item)

输出:

(1, 2)
(2, 3)
(3, 4)

Pairs from a list using a list comprehension

the_list = [1, 2, 3, 4]
pairs = [[the_list[i], the_list[i + 1]] for i in range(len(the_list) - 1)]
for [current_item, next_item] in pairs:
    print(current_item, next_item)

Output:

(1, 2)
(2, 3)
(3, 4)

回答 7

我真的很惊讶,没有人提到更短,更简单,最重要的通用解决方案:

Python 3:

from itertools import islice

def n_wise(iterable, n):
    return zip(*(islice(iterable, i, None) for i in range(n)))

Python 2:

from itertools import izip, islice

def n_wise(iterable, n):
    return izip(*(islice(iterable, i, None) for i in xrange(n)))

它可以通过进行成对迭代n=2,但是可以处理更大的数字:

>>> for a, b in n_wise('Hello!', 2):
>>>     print(a, b)
H e
e l
l l
l o
o !

>>> for a, b, c, d in n_wise('Hello World!', 4):
>>>     print(a, b, c, d)
H e l l
e l l o
l l o
l o   W
o   W o
  W o r
W o r l
o r l d
r l d !

I am really surprised nobody has mentioned the shorter, simpler and most importantly general solution:

Python 3:

from itertools import islice

def n_wise(iterable, n):
    return zip(*(islice(iterable, i, None) for i in range(n)))

Python 2:

from itertools import izip, islice

def n_wise(iterable, n):
    return izip(*(islice(iterable, i, None) for i in xrange(n)))

It works for pairwise iteration by passing n=2, but can handle any higher number:

>>> for a, b in n_wise('Hello!', 2):
>>>     print(a, b)
H e
e l
l l
l o
o !

>>> for a, b, c, d in n_wise('Hello World!', 4):
>>>     print(a, b, c, d)
H e l l
e l l o
l l o
l o   W
o   W o
  W o r
W o r l
o r l d
r l d !

回答 8

基本解决方案:

def neighbors( list ):
  i = 0
  while i + 1 < len( list ):
    yield ( list[ i ], list[ i + 1 ] )
    i += 1

for ( x, y ) in neighbors( list ):
  print( x, y )

A basic solution:

def neighbors( list ):
  i = 0
  while i + 1 < len( list ):
    yield ( list[ i ], list[ i + 1 ] )
    i += 1

for ( x, y ) in neighbors( list ):
  print( x, y )

回答 9

code = '0016364ee0942aa7cc04a8189ef3'
# Getting the current and next item
print  [code[idx]+code[idx+1] for idx in range(len(code)-1)]
# Getting the pair
print  [code[idx*2]+code[idx*2+1] for idx in range(len(code)/2)]
code = '0016364ee0942aa7cc04a8189ef3'
# Getting the current and next item
print  [code[idx]+code[idx+1] for idx in range(len(code)-1)]
# Getting the pair
print  [code[idx*2]+code[idx*2+1] for idx in range(len(code)/2)]

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