如何获取本地安装的Python模块列表?-Python 实用宝典

如何获取本地安装的Python模块列表?

我想获得Python模块的列表,这些模块在我的Python安装(UNIX服务器)中。 如何获得计算机中安装的Python模块的列表?

问题:如何获取本地安装的Python模块列表?

我想获得Python模块的列表,这些模块在我的Python安装(UNIX服务器)中。

如何获得计算机中安装的Python模块的列表?

I would like to get a list of Python modules, which are in my Python installation (UNIX server).

How can you get a list of Python modules installed in your computer?


回答 0

不要使用pip> 10.0!

作为(太长)一行代码:

给予:

范围

我的用例

注意事项

重现步骤:

创建一个虚拟环境
克隆一个git repo setup.py
(test_env) $ git clone https://github.com/behave/behave.git
Cloning into 'behave'...
remote: Reusing existing pack: 4350, done.
remote: Total 4350 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
Receiving objects: 100% (4350/4350), 1.85 MiB | 418.00 KiB/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (2388/2388), done.
Checking connectivity... done.

我们的行为的setup.py/tmp/behave

(test_env) $ ls /tmp/behave/setup.py
/tmp/behave/setup.py
从git repo安装python包
(test_env) $ cd /tmp/behave && pip install . 
running install
...
Installed /private/tmp/test_env/lib/python2.7/site-packages/enum34-1.0-py2.7.egg
Finished processing dependencies for behave==1.2.5a1

如果我们从 /tmp

>>> import pip
>>> sorted(["%s==%s" % (i.key, i.version) for i in pip.get_installed_distributions()])
['behave==1.2.5a1', 'enum34==1.0', 'parse-type==0.3.4', 'parse==1.6.4', 'six==1.6.1']
>>> import os
>>> os.getcwd()
'/private/tmp'

如果我们从 /tmp/behave

>>> import pip
>>> sorted(["%s==%s" % (i.key, i.version) for i in pip.get_installed_distributions()])
['enum34==1.0', 'parse-type==0.3.4', 'parse==1.6.4', 'six==1.6.1']
>>> import os
>>> os.getcwd()
'/private/tmp/behave'

behave==1.2.5a1第二个示例中缺少,因为工作目录包含behavesetup.py文件。

我在文档中找不到对该问题的任何引用。也许我会为此打开一个错误。

Solution

Do not use with pip > 10.0!

As a (too long) one liner:

Giving:

Scope

My use case

Caveats

Steps to reproduce:

Create a virtual environment
Clone a git repo with setup.py
(test_env) $ git clone https://github.com/behave/behave.git
Cloning into 'behave'...
remote: Reusing existing pack: 4350, done.
remote: Total 4350 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
Receiving objects: 100% (4350/4350), 1.85 MiB | 418.00 KiB/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (2388/2388), done.
Checking connectivity... done.

We have behave's setup.py in /tmp/behave:

(test_env) $ ls /tmp/behave/setup.py
/tmp/behave/setup.py
Install the python package from the git repo
(test_env) $ cd /tmp/behave && pip install . 
running install
...
Installed /private/tmp/test_env/lib/python2.7/site-packages/enum34-1.0-py2.7.egg
Finished processing dependencies for behave==1.2.5a1

If we run the aforementioned solution from /tmp

>>> import pip
>>> sorted(["%s==%s" % (i.key, i.version) for i in pip.get_installed_distributions()])
['behave==1.2.5a1', 'enum34==1.0', 'parse-type==0.3.4', 'parse==1.6.4', 'six==1.6.1']
>>> import os
>>> os.getcwd()
'/private/tmp'

If we run the aforementioned solution from /tmp/behave

>>> import pip
>>> sorted(["%s==%s" % (i.key, i.version) for i in pip.get_installed_distributions()])
['enum34==1.0', 'parse-type==0.3.4', 'parse==1.6.4', 'six==1.6.1']
>>> import os
>>> os.getcwd()
'/private/tmp/behave'

behave==1.2.5a1 is missing from the second example, because the working directory contains behave's setup.py file.

I could not find any reference to this issue in the documentation. Perhaps I shall open a bug for it.


回答 1

help('modules')

在Python Shell /提示中。

help('modules')

in a Python shell/prompt.


回答 2

现在,我尝试了这些方法,并且得到了所宣传的内容:所有模块。

las,真的,您对stdlib不太在乎,您知道安装python会得到什么。

说真的,我想要那个东西安装。

出乎意料的是,实际上效果很好的是:

pip freeze

哪个返回:

Fabric==0.9.3
apache-libcloud==0.4.0
bzr==2.3b4
distribute==0.6.14
docutils==0.7
greenlet==0.3.1
ipython==0.10.1
iterpipes==0.4
libxml2-python==2.6.21

我之所以说“令人惊讶”,是因为软件包安装工具是人们期望找到该功能的确切位置,尽管它的名称不是“ freeze”,但python打包却很奇怪,令我感到惊讶的是,这个工具很有意义。点0.8.2,Python 2.7。

Now, these methods I tried myself, and I got exactly what was advertised: All the modules.

Alas, really you don't care much about the stdlib, you know what you get with a python install.

Really, I want the stuff that I installed.

What actually, surprisingly, worked just fine was:

pip freeze

Which returned:

Fabric==0.9.3
apache-libcloud==0.4.0
bzr==2.3b4
distribute==0.6.14
docutils==0.7
greenlet==0.3.1
ipython==0.10.1
iterpipes==0.4
libxml2-python==2.6.21

I say "surprisingly" because the package install tool is the exact place one would expect to find this functionality, although not under the name 'freeze' but python packaging is so weird, that I am flabbergasted that this tool makes sense. Pip 0.8.2, Python 2.7.


回答 3

从pip 1.3版开始,您可以访问:

pip list

这似乎是“点子冻结”的语法糖。它将列出特定于您的安装或virtualenv的所有模块,以及它们的版本号。不幸的是,它没有显示任何模块的当前版本号,也没有洗碗或擦鞋。

Since pip version 1.3, you've got access to:

pip list

Which seems to be syntactic sugar for "pip freeze". It will list all of the modules particular to your installation or virtualenv, along with their version numbers. Unfortunately it does not display the current version number of any module, nor does it wash your dishes or shine your shoes.


回答 4

  • 在其中可以输入“ importTab”。

  • 在标准的Python解释器中,您可以输入“ help('modules')”。

  • 在命令行上,您可以使用。 modules

  • 在脚本中,调用pkgutil.iter_modules()

  • In you can type "importTab".

  • In the standard Python interpreter, you can type "help('modules')".

  • At the command-line, you can use modules.

  • In a script, call pkgutil.iter_modules().


回答 5

我只是用它来查看当前使用的模块:

import sys as s
s.modules.keys()

显示所有在python上运行的模块。

对于所有内置模块,请使用:

s.modules

这是一个包含所有模块和导入对象的字典。

I just use this to see currently used modules:

import sys as s
s.modules.keys()

which shows all modules running on your python.

For all built-in modules use:

s.modules

Which is a dict containing all modules and import objects.


回答 6

在普通外壳中使用

pydoc modules

In normal shell just use

pydoc modules

回答 7

从第10点开始,接受的答案将不再起作用。开发团队已删除对get_installed_distributions例程的访问。中有一个备用功能setuptools可以完成相同的操作。这是与pip 10兼容的替代版本:

import pkg_resources
installed_packages = pkg_resources.working_set
installed_packages_list = sorted(["%s==%s" % (i.key, i.version)
     for i in installed_packages])
print(installed_packages_list)

请让我知道它是否会在早期版本的pip中起作用。

As of pip 10, the accepted answer will no longer work. The development team has removed access to the get_installed_distributions routine. There is an alternate function in the setuptools for doing the same thing. Here is an alternate version that works with pip 10:

import pkg_resources
installed_packages = pkg_resources.working_set
installed_packages_list = sorted(["%s==%s" % (i.key, i.version)
     for i in installed_packages])
print(installed_packages_list)

Please let me know if it will or won't work in previous versions of pip, too.


回答 8

如果我们需要在Python Shell中列出已安装的软件包,则可以使用以下help命令

>>help('modules package')

If we need to list the installed packages in the Python shell, we can use the help command as follows

>>help('modules package')

回答 9

我通常使用pip list来获取软件包列表(带有版本)。

当然,这也可以在虚拟环境中工作。要显示仅在虚拟环境中安装的内容(而不是全局软件包),请使用pip list --local

这里的文档显示了所有可用的pip list选项,并提供了一些很好的示例。

I normally use pip list to get a list of packages (with version).

This works in a virtual environment too, of course. To show what's installed in only the virtual environment (not global packages), use pip list --local.

Here's documentation showing all the available pip list options, with several good examples.


回答 10

使用pkgutil.iter_modules非常简单的搜索

from pkgutil import iter_modules
a=iter_modules()
while True:
    try: x=a.next()
    except: break
    if 'searchstr' in x[1]: print x[1]

Very simple searching using pkgutil.iter_modules

from pkgutil import iter_modules
a=iter_modules()
while True:
    try: x=a.next()
    except: break
    if 'searchstr' in x[1]: print x[1]

回答 11

在Windows上,以cmd输入

c:\python\libs>python -m pip freeze

on windows, Enter this in cmd

c:\python\libs>python -m pip freeze

回答 12

我在OS X上遇到了一个自定义安装的python 2.7。它需要X11列出安装的模块(都使用help和pydoc)。

为了能够列出所有模块而不安装X11,我将pydoc作为http-server运行,即:

pydoc -p 12345

然后,可以指示Safari http://localhost:12345/浏览所有模块。

I ran into a custom installed python 2.7 on OS X. It required X11 to list modules installed (both using help and pydoc).

To be able to list all modules without installing X11 I ran pydoc as http-server, i.e.:

pydoc -p 12345

Then it's possible to direct Safari to http://localhost:12345/ to see all modules.


回答 13

试试这些

pip list

要么

pip freeze

Try these

pip list

or

pip freeze

回答 14

这会有所帮助

在终端或IPython中,键入:

help('modules')

然后

In [1]: import                      #import press-TAB
Display all 631 possibilities? (y or n)
ANSI                   audiodev               markupbase
AptUrl                 audioop                markupsafe
ArgImagePlugin         avahi                  marshal
BaseHTTPServer         axi                    math
Bastion                base64                 md5
BdfFontFile            bdb                    mhlib
BmpImagePlugin         binascii               mimetools
BufrStubImagePlugin    binhex                 mimetypes
CDDB                   bisect                 mimify
CDROM                  bonobo                 mmap
CGIHTTPServer          brlapi                 mmkeys
Canvas                 bsddb                  modulefinder
CommandNotFound        butterfly              multifile
ConfigParser           bz2                    multiprocessing
ContainerIO            cPickle                musicbrainz2
Cookie                 cProfile               mutagen
Crypto                 cStringIO              mutex
CurImagePlugin         cairo                  mx
DLFCN                  calendar               netrc
DcxImagePlugin         cdrom                  new
Dialog                 cgi                    nis
DiscID                 cgitb                  nntplib
DistUpgrade            checkbox               ntpath

This will help

In terminal or IPython, type:

help('modules')

then

In [1]: import                      #import press-TAB
Display all 631 possibilities? (y or n)
ANSI                   audiodev               markupbase
AptUrl                 audioop                markupsafe
ArgImagePlugin         avahi                  marshal
BaseHTTPServer         axi                    math
Bastion                base64                 md5
BdfFontFile            bdb                    mhlib
BmpImagePlugin         binascii               mimetools
BufrStubImagePlugin    binhex                 mimetypes
CDDB                   bisect                 mimify
CDROM                  bonobo                 mmap
CGIHTTPServer          brlapi                 mmkeys
Canvas                 bsddb                  modulefinder
CommandNotFound        butterfly              multifile
ConfigParser           bz2                    multiprocessing
ContainerIO            cPickle                musicbrainz2
Cookie                 cProfile               mutagen
Crypto                 cStringIO              mutex
CurImagePlugin         cairo                  mx
DLFCN                  calendar               netrc
DcxImagePlugin         cdrom                  new
Dialog                 cgi                    nis
DiscID                 cgitb                  nntplib
DistUpgrade            checkbox               ntpath

回答 15

该解决方案主要基于模块importlibpkgutil并且可以与CPython 3.4和CPython 3.5一起使用,但是不支持CPython 2。


说明

  1. sys.builtin_module_names-命名所有内置模块(在此处查看我的答案)
  2. pkgutil.iter_modules() -返回有关所有可用模块的信息
  3. importlib.util.find_spec() -返回有关导入模块的信息(如果存在)
  4. BuiltinImporter-内置模块的导入器(docs
  5. SourceFileLoader-标准Python模块的导入程序(默认扩展名为* .py)(docs
  6. ExtensionFileLoader-将模块导入为共享库(用C或C ++编写)

完整代码

import sys
import os
import shutil
import pkgutil
import importlib
import collections

if sys.version_info.major == 2:
    raise NotImplementedError('CPython 2 is not supported yet')


def main():

    # name this file (module)
    this_module_name = os.path.basename(__file__).rsplit('.')[0]

    # dict for loaders with their modules
    loaders = collections.OrderedDict()

    # names`s of build-in modules
    for module_name in sys.builtin_module_names:

        # find an information about a module by name
        module = importlib.util.find_spec(module_name)

        # add a key about a loader in the dict, if not exists yet
        if module.loader not in loaders:
            loaders[module.loader] = []

        # add a name and a location about imported module in the dict
        loaders[module.loader].append((module.name, module.origin))

    # all available non-build-in modules
    for module_name in pkgutil.iter_modules():

        # ignore this module
        if this_module_name == module_name[1]:
            continue

        # find an information about a module by name
        module = importlib.util.find_spec(module_name[1])

        # add a key about a loader in the dict, if not exists yet
        loader = type(module.loader)
        if loader not in loaders:
            loaders[loader] = []

        # add a name and a location about imported module in the dict
        loaders[loader].append((module.name, module.origin))

    # pretty print
    line = '-' * shutil.get_terminal_size().columns
    for loader, modules in loaders.items():
        print('{0}\n{1}: {2}\n{0}'.format(line, len(modules), loader))
        for module in modules:
            print('{0:30} | {1}'.format(module[0], module[1]))


if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()

用法

对于CPython3.5(已截断)

$ python3.5 python_modules_info.py 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
30: <class '_frozen_importlib.BuiltinImporter'>
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
_ast                           | built-in
_codecs                        | built-in
_collections                   | built-in
_functools                     | built-in
_imp                           | None
_io                            | built-in
_locale                        | built-in
_operator                      | built-in
_signal                        | built-in
_sre                           | built-in
_stat                          | built-in
_string                        | built-in
_symtable                      | built-in
_thread                        | built-in
(****************************truncated*******************************)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
227: <class '_frozen_importlib_external.SourceFileLoader'>
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
__future__                     | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/__future__.py
_bootlocale                    | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_bootlocale.py
_collections_abc               | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_collections_abc.py
_compat_pickle                 | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_compat_pickle.py
_compression                   | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_compression.py
_dummy_thread                  | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_dummy_thread.py
_markupbase                    | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_markupbase.py
_osx_support                   | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_osx_support.py
_pydecimal                     | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_pydecimal.py
_pyio                          | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_pyio.py
_sitebuiltins                  | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_sitebuiltins.py
(****************************truncated*******************************)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
64: <class '_frozen_importlib_external.ExtensionFileLoader'>
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
_bisect                        | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/lib-dynload/_bisect.cpython-35m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_bz2                           | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/lib-dynload/_bz2.cpython-35m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_cn                     | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/lib-dynload/_codecs_cn.cpython-35m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_hk                     | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/lib-dynload/_codecs_hk.cpython-35m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_iso2022                | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/lib-dynload/_codecs_iso2022.cpython-35m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
(****************************truncated*******************************)

对于CPython3.4(已截断)

$ python3.4 python_modules_info.py
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
54: <class '_frozen_importlib.BuiltinImporter'>
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
_ast                           | built-in
_bisect                        | built-in
_codecs                        | built-in
_collections                   | built-in
_datetime                      | built-in
_elementtree                   | built-in
_functools                     | built-in
_heapq                         | built-in
_imp                           | None
_io                            | built-in
_locale                        | built-in
_md5                           | built-in
_operator                      | built-in
_pickle                        | built-in
_posixsubprocess               | built-in
_random                        | built-in
(****************************truncated*******************************)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
246: <class '_frozen_importlib.SourceFileLoader'>
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
__future__                     | /usr/lib/python3.4/__future__.py
_bootlocale                    | /usr/lib/python3.4/_bootlocale.py
_collections_abc               | /usr/lib/python3.4/_collections_abc.py
_compat_pickle                 | /usr/lib/python3.4/_compat_pickle.py
_dummy_thread                  | /usr/lib/python3.4/_dummy_thread.py
_markupbase                    | /usr/lib/python3.4/_markupbase.py
_osx_support                   | /usr/lib/python3.4/_osx_support.py
_pyio                          | /usr/lib/python3.4/_pyio.py
(****************************truncated*******************************)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
44: <class '_frozen_importlib.ExtensionFileLoader'>
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
_bz2                           | /usr/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload/_bz2.cpython-34m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_cn                     | /usr/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload/_codecs_cn.cpython-34m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_hk                     | /usr/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload/_codecs_hk.cpython-34m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_iso2022                | /usr/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload/_codecs_iso2022.cpython-34m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_jp                     | /usr/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload/_codecs_jp.cpython-34m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_kr                     | /usr/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload/_codecs_kr.cpython-34m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_tw                     | /usr/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload/_codecs_tw.cpython-34m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_crypt                         | /usr/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload/_crypt.cpython-34m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
(****************************truncated*******************************)

This solution is primary based on modules importlib and pkgutil and work with CPython 3.4 and CPython 3.5, but has no support for the CPython 2.


Explanation

  1. sys.builtin_module_names - names all built-in modules (look my answer here)
  2. pkgutil.iter_modules() - returns an information about all available modules
  3. importlib.util.find_spec() - returns an information about importing module, if exists
  4. BuiltinImporter - an importer for built-in modules (docs)
  5. SourceFileLoader - an importer for a standard Python module (by default has extension *.py) (docs)
  6. ExtensionFileLoader - an importer for modules as shared library (written on the C or C++)

Full code

import sys
import os
import shutil
import pkgutil
import importlib
import collections

if sys.version_info.major == 2:
    raise NotImplementedError('CPython 2 is not supported yet')


def main():

    # name this file (module)
    this_module_name = os.path.basename(__file__).rsplit('.')[0]

    # dict for loaders with their modules
    loaders = collections.OrderedDict()

    # names`s of build-in modules
    for module_name in sys.builtin_module_names:

        # find an information about a module by name
        module = importlib.util.find_spec(module_name)

        # add a key about a loader in the dict, if not exists yet
        if module.loader not in loaders:
            loaders[module.loader] = []

        # add a name and a location about imported module in the dict
        loaders[module.loader].append((module.name, module.origin))

    # all available non-build-in modules
    for module_name in pkgutil.iter_modules():

        # ignore this module
        if this_module_name == module_name[1]:
            continue

        # find an information about a module by name
        module = importlib.util.find_spec(module_name[1])

        # add a key about a loader in the dict, if not exists yet
        loader = type(module.loader)
        if loader not in loaders:
            loaders[loader] = []

        # add a name and a location about imported module in the dict
        loaders[loader].append((module.name, module.origin))

    # pretty print
    line = '-' * shutil.get_terminal_size().columns
    for loader, modules in loaders.items():
        print('{0}\n{1}: {2}\n{0}'.format(line, len(modules), loader))
        for module in modules:
            print('{0:30} | {1}'.format(module[0], module[1]))


if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()

Usage

For the CPython3.5 (truncated)

$ python3.5 python_modules_info.py 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
30: <class '_frozen_importlib.BuiltinImporter'>
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
_ast                           | built-in
_codecs                        | built-in
_collections                   | built-in
_functools                     | built-in
_imp                           | None
_io                            | built-in
_locale                        | built-in
_operator                      | built-in
_signal                        | built-in
_sre                           | built-in
_stat                          | built-in
_string                        | built-in
_symtable                      | built-in
_thread                        | built-in
(****************************truncated*******************************)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
227: <class '_frozen_importlib_external.SourceFileLoader'>
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
__future__                     | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/__future__.py
_bootlocale                    | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_bootlocale.py
_collections_abc               | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_collections_abc.py
_compat_pickle                 | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_compat_pickle.py
_compression                   | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_compression.py
_dummy_thread                  | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_dummy_thread.py
_markupbase                    | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_markupbase.py
_osx_support                   | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_osx_support.py
_pydecimal                     | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_pydecimal.py
_pyio                          | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_pyio.py
_sitebuiltins                  | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/_sitebuiltins.py
(****************************truncated*******************************)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
64: <class '_frozen_importlib_external.ExtensionFileLoader'>
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
_bisect                        | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/lib-dynload/_bisect.cpython-35m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_bz2                           | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/lib-dynload/_bz2.cpython-35m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_cn                     | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/lib-dynload/_codecs_cn.cpython-35m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_hk                     | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/lib-dynload/_codecs_hk.cpython-35m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_iso2022                | /usr/local/lib/python3.5/lib-dynload/_codecs_iso2022.cpython-35m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
(****************************truncated*******************************)

For the CPython3.4 (truncated)

$ python3.4 python_modules_info.py
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
54: <class '_frozen_importlib.BuiltinImporter'>
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
_ast                           | built-in
_bisect                        | built-in
_codecs                        | built-in
_collections                   | built-in
_datetime                      | built-in
_elementtree                   | built-in
_functools                     | built-in
_heapq                         | built-in
_imp                           | None
_io                            | built-in
_locale                        | built-in
_md5                           | built-in
_operator                      | built-in
_pickle                        | built-in
_posixsubprocess               | built-in
_random                        | built-in
(****************************truncated*******************************)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
246: <class '_frozen_importlib.SourceFileLoader'>
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
__future__                     | /usr/lib/python3.4/__future__.py
_bootlocale                    | /usr/lib/python3.4/_bootlocale.py
_collections_abc               | /usr/lib/python3.4/_collections_abc.py
_compat_pickle                 | /usr/lib/python3.4/_compat_pickle.py
_dummy_thread                  | /usr/lib/python3.4/_dummy_thread.py
_markupbase                    | /usr/lib/python3.4/_markupbase.py
_osx_support                   | /usr/lib/python3.4/_osx_support.py
_pyio                          | /usr/lib/python3.4/_pyio.py
(****************************truncated*******************************)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
44: <class '_frozen_importlib.ExtensionFileLoader'>
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
_bz2                           | /usr/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload/_bz2.cpython-34m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_cn                     | /usr/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload/_codecs_cn.cpython-34m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_hk                     | /usr/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload/_codecs_hk.cpython-34m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_iso2022                | /usr/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload/_codecs_iso2022.cpython-34m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_jp                     | /usr/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload/_codecs_jp.cpython-34m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_kr                     | /usr/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload/_codecs_kr.cpython-34m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_codecs_tw                     | /usr/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload/_codecs_tw.cpython-34m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
_crypt                         | /usr/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload/_crypt.cpython-34m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
(****************************truncated*******************************)

回答 16

警告:亚当·马坦(Adam Matan)不建议在点> 10.0的情况下使用此方法。另外,请在下面阅读@sinoroc的评论

这是受到亚当·马坦(Adam Matan)的回答(公认的)的启发:

import tabulate
try:
  from pip import get_installed_distributions
except:
  from pip._internal.utils.misc import get_installed_distributions

tabpackages = []
for _, package in sorted([('%s %s' % (i.location, i.key), i) for i in get_installed_distributions()]):
  tabpackages.append([package.location, package.key, package.version])

print(tabulate.tabulate(tabpackages))

然后以以下形式打印出表格

19:33 pi@rpi-v3 [iot-wifi-2] ~/python$ python installed_packages.py
-------------------------------------------  --------------  ------
/home/pi/.local/lib/python2.7/site-packages  enum-compat     0.0.2
/home/pi/.local/lib/python2.7/site-packages  enum34          1.1.6
/home/pi/.local/lib/python2.7/site-packages  pexpect         4.2.1
/home/pi/.local/lib/python2.7/site-packages  ptyprocess      0.5.2
/home/pi/.local/lib/python2.7/site-packages  pygatt          3.2.0
/home/pi/.local/lib/python2.7/site-packages  pyserial        3.4
/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages       bluepy          1.1.1
/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages       click           6.7
/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages       click-datetime  0.2
/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages       construct       2.8.21
/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages       pyaudio         0.2.11
/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages       tabulate        0.8.2
-------------------------------------------  --------------  ------

这样一来,您便可以轻松辨别使用和不安装时安装的软件包sudo


撇开笔记:我注意到,当我一次安装一个数据包而一次安装一次数据包时sudo,一个优先处理,这样就不会列出另一个数据包(仅显示一个位置)。我相信只会列出本地目录中的一个。这可以改善。

Warning: Adam Matan discourages this use in pip > 10.0. Also, read @sinoroc's comment below

This was inspired by Adam Matan's answer (the accepted one):

import tabulate
try:
  from pip import get_installed_distributions
except:
  from pip._internal.utils.misc import get_installed_distributions

tabpackages = []
for _, package in sorted([('%s %s' % (i.location, i.key), i) for i in get_installed_distributions()]):
  tabpackages.append([package.location, package.key, package.version])

print(tabulate.tabulate(tabpackages))

which then prints out a table in the form of

19:33 pi@rpi-v3 [iot-wifi-2] ~/python$ python installed_packages.py
-------------------------------------------  --------------  ------
/home/pi/.local/lib/python2.7/site-packages  enum-compat     0.0.2
/home/pi/.local/lib/python2.7/site-packages  enum34          1.1.6
/home/pi/.local/lib/python2.7/site-packages  pexpect         4.2.1
/home/pi/.local/lib/python2.7/site-packages  ptyprocess      0.5.2
/home/pi/.local/lib/python2.7/site-packages  pygatt          3.2.0
/home/pi/.local/lib/python2.7/site-packages  pyserial        3.4
/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages       bluepy          1.1.1
/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages       click           6.7
/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages       click-datetime  0.2
/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages       construct       2.8.21
/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages       pyaudio         0.2.11
/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages       tabulate        0.8.2
-------------------------------------------  --------------  ------

which lets you then easily discern which packages you installed with and without sudo.


A note aside: I've noticed that when I install a packet once via sudo and once without, one takes precedence so that the other one isn't being listed (only one location is shown). I believe that only the one in the local directory is then listed. This could be improved.


回答 17

除了使用之外,pip freeze我还在虚拟环境中安装了蛋黄

Aside from using pip freeze I have been installing yolk in my virtual environments.


回答 18

如果您安装了anaconda python发行版,则也可以使用

$conda list

除了上述解决方案。

In case you have an anaconda python distribution installed, you could also use

$conda list

in addition to solutions described above.


回答 19

  1. 获取所有可用的模块,运行 sys.modules
  2. 要获取所有已安装的模块(请阅读:由by安装pip),您可以查看pip.get_installed_distributions()

出于第二个目的,示例代码:

import pip
for package in pip.get_installed_distributions():
    name = package.project_name # SQLAlchemy, Django, Flask-OAuthlib
    key = package.key # sqlalchemy, django, flask-oauthlib
    module_name = package._get_metadata("top_level.txt") # sqlalchemy, django, flask_oauthlib
    location = package.location # virtualenv lib directory etc.
    version = package.version # version number
  1. to get all available modules, run sys.modules
  2. to get all installed modules (read: installed by pip), you may look at pip.get_installed_distributions()

For the second purpose, example code:

import pip
for package in pip.get_installed_distributions():
    name = package.project_name # SQLAlchemy, Django, Flask-OAuthlib
    key = package.key # sqlalchemy, django, flask-oauthlib
    module_name = package._get_metadata("top_level.txt") # sqlalchemy, django, flask_oauthlib
    location = package.location # virtualenv lib directory etc.
    version = package.version # version number

回答 20

对于最新版本,例如Pip 20

在您的python编辑器或IPython中运行以下命令

import pkg_resources; 
installed_packages = {d.project_name: d.version for d in pkg_resources.working_set}
print(installed_packages)

阅读其他答案并组合在一起,这是Python中最快,最简单的组合

For Recent Version Such as Pip 20

Run the following in your python editor or IPython

import pkg_resources; 
installed_packages = {d.project_name: d.version for d in pkg_resources.working_set}
print(installed_packages)

Read other answers and pulled together this combo, which is quickest and easiest inside Python


回答 21

pip Frozen完成了所有查找程序包的工作,但是只需编写以下命令即可列出python程序包所在的所有路径。

>>> import site; site.getsitepackages()
['/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages', '/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages']

pip freeze does it all finding packages however one can simply write the following command to list all paths where python packages are.

>>> import site; site.getsitepackages()
['/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages', '/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages']

回答 22

有很多方法可以给猫皮。

  • 最简单的方法是pydoc直接在shell中使用以下功能:
    pydoc modules

  • 但是,有关更多信息,请使用名为pip-date的工具,该工具还会告诉您安装日期。
    pip install pip-date


在此处输入图片说明

There are many way to skin a cat.

  • The most simple way is to use the pydoc function directly from the shell with:
    pydoc modules

  • But for more information use the tool called pip-date that also tell you the installation dates.
    pip install pip-date


enter image description here


回答 23

有很多想法,最初我会考虑以下两个方面:

点子

缺点:并非总是安装

帮助('模块')

缺点:输出到控制台;带有损坏的模块(请参见ubuntu ...)会导致segfault

我需要一个简单的方法,使用基本库并与旧python 2.x兼容

我看到了光:listmodules.py

2.5的文档源目录中隐藏着一个小脚本,该脚本列出了Python安装的所有可用模块。

优点:

仅使用imp,sys,os,re,time

设计用于在Python 1.5.2和更高版本上运行

源代码确实非常紧凑,因此您可以轻松修改它,例如,传递错误模块的异常列表(不要尝试导入它们)

There are many ideas, initially I am pondering on these two:

pip

cons: not always installed

help('modules')

cons: output to console; with broken modules (see ubuntu...) can segfault

I need an easy approach, using basic libraries and compatible with old python 2.x

And I see the light: listmodules.py

Hidden in the documentation source directory in 2.5 is a small script that lists all available modules for a Python installation.

Pros:

uses only imp, sys, os, re, time

designed to run on Python 1.5.2 and newer

the source code is really compact, so you can easy tinkering with it, for example to pass an exception list of buggy modules (don't try to import them)


回答 24

我需要找到AWS Lambda默认可用的特定版本的软件包。我是通过此页面上的想法混搭来实现的。我分享是为了后代。

import pkgutil

__version__ = '0.1.1'

def get_ver(name):
    try:
        return str(__import__(name).__version__)
    except:
        return None

def lambda_handler(event, context):
    return {
        'statusCode': 200,
        'body': [{
                   'path': m.module_finder.path,
                   'name': m.name,
                   'version': get_ver(m.name),
                 } for m in list(pkgutil.iter_modules())
                 #if m.module_finder.path == "/var/runtime" # Uncomment this if you only care about a certain path
                ],
    }

我发现所提供的boto3库已过时,并且我的代码失败不是我的错。我只需要在项目中添加boto3和botocore。但是如果没有这个,我本来会以为我的代码很糟糕而ing之以鼻。

{
  "statusCode": 200,
  "body": [
    {
      "path": "/var/task",
      "name": "lambda_function",
      "version": "0.1.1"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "bootstrap",
      "version": null
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "boto3",
      "version": "1.9.42"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "botocore",
      "version": "1.12.42"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "dateutil",
      "version": "2.7.5"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "docutils",
      "version": "0.14"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "jmespath",
      "version": "0.9.3"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "lambda_runtime_client",
      "version": null
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "lambda_runtime_exception",
      "version": null
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "lambda_runtime_marshaller",
      "version": null
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "s3transfer",
      "version": "0.1.13"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "six",
      "version": "1.11.0"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "test_bootstrap",
      "version": null
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "test_lambda_runtime_client",
      "version": null
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "test_lambda_runtime_marshaller",
      "version": null
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "urllib3",
      "version": "1.24.1"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/lang/lib/python3.7",
      "name": "__future__",
      "version": null
    },
...

我发现的内容也与他们正式发布的内容不同。在撰写本文时:

  • 操作系统– Amazon Linux
  • AMI – amzn-ami-hvm-2017.03.1.20170812-x86_64-gp2
  • Linux内核– 4.14.77-70.59.amzn1.x86_64
  • 适用于JavaScript的AWS开发工具包– 2.290.0 \
  • 适用于Python的SDK(Boto 3)– 3-1.7.74 botocore-1.10.74

I needed to find the specific version of packages available by default in AWS Lambda. I did so with a mashup of ideas from this page. I'm sharing it for posterity.

import pkgutil

__version__ = '0.1.1'

def get_ver(name):
    try:
        return str(__import__(name).__version__)
    except:
        return None

def lambda_handler(event, context):
    return {
        'statusCode': 200,
        'body': [{
                   'path': m.module_finder.path,
                   'name': m.name,
                   'version': get_ver(m.name),
                 } for m in list(pkgutil.iter_modules())
                 #if m.module_finder.path == "/var/runtime" # Uncomment this if you only care about a certain path
                ],
    }

What I discovered is that the provided boto3 library was way out of date and it wasn't my fault that my code was failing. I just needed to add boto3 and botocore to my project. But without this I would have been banging my head thinking my code was bad.

{
  "statusCode": 200,
  "body": [
    {
      "path": "/var/task",
      "name": "lambda_function",
      "version": "0.1.1"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "bootstrap",
      "version": null
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "boto3",
      "version": "1.9.42"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "botocore",
      "version": "1.12.42"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "dateutil",
      "version": "2.7.5"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "docutils",
      "version": "0.14"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "jmespath",
      "version": "0.9.3"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "lambda_runtime_client",
      "version": null
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "lambda_runtime_exception",
      "version": null
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "lambda_runtime_marshaller",
      "version": null
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "s3transfer",
      "version": "0.1.13"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "six",
      "version": "1.11.0"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "test_bootstrap",
      "version": null
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "test_lambda_runtime_client",
      "version": null
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "test_lambda_runtime_marshaller",
      "version": null
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/runtime",
      "name": "urllib3",
      "version": "1.24.1"
    },
    {
      "path": "/var/lang/lib/python3.7",
      "name": "__future__",
      "version": null
    },
...

What I discovered was also different from what they officially publish. At the time of writing this:

  • Operating system – Amazon Linux
  • AMI – amzn-ami-hvm-2017.03.1.20170812-x86_64-gp2
  • Linux kernel – 4.14.77-70.59.amzn1.x86_64
  • AWS SDK for JavaScript – 2.290.0\
  • SDK for Python (Boto 3) – 3-1.7.74 botocore-1.10.74

回答 25

安装

pip install pkgutil

import pkgutil

for i in pkgutil.iter_modules(None): # returns a tuple (path, package_name, ispkg_flag)
    print(i[1]) #or you can append it to a list

样本输出:

multiprocessing
netrc
nntplib
ntpath
nturl2path
numbers
opcode
pickle
pickletools
pipes
pkgutil

Installation

pip install pkgutil

Code

import pkgutil

for i in pkgutil.iter_modules(None): # returns a tuple (path, package_name, ispkg_flag)
    print(i[1]) #or you can append it to a list

Sample Output:

multiprocessing
netrc
nntplib
ntpath
nturl2path
numbers
opcode
pickle
pickletools
pipes
pkgutil

回答 26

这是一个python代码解决方案,它将返回已安装模块的列表。可以轻松地修改代码以包含版本号。

import subprocess
import sys
from pprint import pprint

installed_packages = reqs = subprocess.check_output([sys.executable, '-m', 'pip', 'freeze']).decode('utf-8')
installed_packages = installed_packages.split('\r\n')
installed_packages = [pkg.split('==')[0] for pkg in installed_packages if pkg != '']
pprint(installed_packages)

Here is a python code solution that will return a list of modules installed. One can easily modify the code to include version numbers.

import subprocess
import sys
from pprint import pprint

installed_packages = reqs = subprocess.check_output([sys.executable, '-m', 'pip', 'freeze']).decode('utf-8')
installed_packages = installed_packages.split('\r\n')
installed_packages = [pkg.split('==')[0] for pkg in installed_packages if pkg != '']
pprint(installed_packages)

回答 27

对于想知道如何pip list从Python程序调用的任何人,可以使用以下命令:

import pip
pip.main(['list])  # this will print all the packages

For anyone wondering how to call pip list from a Python program you can use the following:

import pip
pip.main(['list])  # this will print all the packages

回答 28

从外壳

ls site-packages

如果那没有帮助,则可以执行此操作。

import sys
import os
for p in sys.path:
    print os.listdir( p )

看看会产生什么。

From the shell

ls site-packages

If that's not helpful, you can do this.

import sys
import os
for p in sys.path:
    print os.listdir( p )

And see what that produces.


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