检查密钥是否存在,并使用Python迭代JSON数组-Python 实用宝典

检查密钥是否存在,并使用Python迭代JSON数组

我从Facebook帖子中获得了一堆JSON数据,如下所示: {"from": {"id": "8", "name": "Mary Pinter"}, "message": "How ARE you?", "comments": {"count": 0}, "updated_time": "2012-05-01", "created_time": "2012-05-01", "to": {"data": [{"id": "1543", "name": "Honey Pinter"}]}, "type": "status", "id": "id_7"} JSON数据是半结构化的,并且所有数据都不相同。下面是我的代码: import json str = '{"from": {"id": "8", "name": "Mary Pinter"}, "message": "How ARE you?", "comments": {"count": 0}, "updated_time": "2012-05-01", "created_time": …

问题:检查密钥是否存在,并使用Python迭代JSON数组

我从Facebook帖子中获得了一堆JSON数据,如下所示:

{"from": {"id": "8", "name": "Mary Pinter"}, "message": "How ARE you?", "comments": {"count": 0}, "updated_time": "2012-05-01", "created_time": "2012-05-01", "to": {"data": [{"id": "1543", "name": "Honey Pinter"}]}, "type": "status", "id": "id_7"}

JSON数据是半结构化的,并且所有数据都不相同。下面是我的代码:

import json 

str = '{"from": {"id": "8", "name": "Mary Pinter"}, "message": "How ARE you?", "comments": {"count": 0}, "updated_time": "2012-05-01", "created_time": "2012-05-01", "to": {"data": [{"id": "1543", "name": "Honey Pinter"}]}, "type": "status", "id": "id_7"}'
data = json.loads(str)

post_id = data['id']
post_type = data['type']
print(post_id)
print(post_type)

created_time = data['created_time']
updated_time = data['updated_time']
print(created_time)
print(updated_time)

if data.get('application'):
    app_id = data['application'].get('id', 0)
    print(app_id)
else:
    print('null')

#if data.get('to'):
#... This is the part I am not sure how to do
# Since it is in the form "to": {"data":[{"id":...}]}

我希望代码将to_id打印为1543,否则打印'null'

我不确定该怎么做。

I have a bunch of JSON data from Facebook posts like the one below:

{"from": {"id": "8", "name": "Mary Pinter"}, "message": "How ARE you?", "comments": {"count": 0}, "updated_time": "2012-05-01", "created_time": "2012-05-01", "to": {"data": [{"id": "1543", "name": "Honey Pinter"}]}, "type": "status", "id": "id_7"}

The JSON data is semi-structured and all is not the same. Below is my code:

import json 

str = '{"from": {"id": "8", "name": "Mary Pinter"}, "message": "How ARE you?", "comments": {"count": 0}, "updated_time": "2012-05-01", "created_time": "2012-05-01", "to": {"data": [{"id": "1543", "name": "Honey Pinter"}]}, "type": "status", "id": "id_7"}'
data = json.loads(str)

post_id = data['id']
post_type = data['type']
print(post_id)
print(post_type)

created_time = data['created_time']
updated_time = data['updated_time']
print(created_time)
print(updated_time)

if data.get('application'):
    app_id = data['application'].get('id', 0)
    print(app_id)
else:
    print('null')

#if data.get('to'):
#... This is the part I am not sure how to do
# Since it is in the form "to": {"data":[{"id":...}]}

I want the code to print the to_id as 1543 else print 'null'

I am not sure how to do this.


回答 0

import json

jsonData = """{"from": {"id": "8", "name": "Mary Pinter"}, "message": "How ARE you?", "comments": {"count": 0}, "updated_time": "2012-05-01", "created_time": "2012-05-01", "to": {"data": [{"id": "1543", "name": "Honey Pinter"}]}, "type": "status", "id": "id_7"}"""

def getTargetIds(jsonData):
    data = json.loads(jsonData)
    if 'to' not in data:
        raise ValueError("No target in given data")
    if 'data' not in data['to']:
        raise ValueError("No data for target")

    for dest in data['to']['data']:
        if 'id' not in dest:
            continue
        targetId = dest['id']
        print("to_id:", targetId)

输出:

In [9]: getTargetIds(s)
to_id: 1543
import json

jsonData = """{"from": {"id": "8", "name": "Mary Pinter"}, "message": "How ARE you?", "comments": {"count": 0}, "updated_time": "2012-05-01", "created_time": "2012-05-01", "to": {"data": [{"id": "1543", "name": "Honey Pinter"}]}, "type": "status", "id": "id_7"}"""

def getTargetIds(jsonData):
    data = json.loads(jsonData)
    if 'to' not in data:
        raise ValueError("No target in given data")
    if 'data' not in data['to']:
        raise ValueError("No data for target")

    for dest in data['to']['data']:
        if 'id' not in dest:
            continue
        targetId = dest['id']
        print("to_id:", targetId)

Output:

In [9]: getTargetIds(s)
to_id: 1543

回答 1

如果您只想检查密钥是否存在

h = {'a': 1}
'b' in h # returns False

如果要检查是否有密钥值

h.get('b') # returns None

如果缺少实际值,则返回默认值

h.get('b', 'Default value')

If all you want is to check if key exists or not

h = {'a': 1}
'b' in h # returns False

If you want to check if there is a value for key

h.get('b') # returns None

Return a default value if actual value is missing

h.get('b', 'Default value')

回答 2

为此类事件创建助手实用程序方法是一个好习惯,这样,每当您需要更改属性验证的逻辑时,它就会放在一个位置,并且对于跟随者而言,代码将更具可读性。

例如,在以下位置创建一个辅助方法(或JsonUtils带有静态方法的类)json_utils.py

def get_attribute(data, attribute, default_value):
    return data.get(attribute) or default_value

然后在您的项目中使用它:

from json_utils import get_attribute

def my_cool_iteration_func(data):

    data_to = get_attribute(data, 'to', None)
    if not data_to:
        return

    data_to_data = get_attribute(data_to, 'data', [])
    for item in data_to_data:
        print('The id is: %s' % get_attribute(item, 'id', 'null'))

重要的提示:

我使用的原因data.get(attribute) or default_value不是简单的data.get(attribute, default_value)

{'my_key': None}.get('my_key', 'nothing') # returns None
{'my_key': None}.get('my_key') or 'nothing' # returns 'nothing'

在我的应用程序中,获取属性值为“ null”与根本不获取属性相同。如果您的用法不同,则需要进行更改。

It is a good practice to create helper utility methods for things like that so that whenever you need to change the logic of attribute validation it would be in one place, and the code will be more readable for the followers.

For example create a helper method (or class JsonUtils with static methods) in json_utils.py:

def get_attribute(data, attribute, default_value):
    return data.get(attribute) or default_value

and then use it in your project:

from json_utils import get_attribute

def my_cool_iteration_func(data):

    data_to = get_attribute(data, 'to', None)
    if not data_to:
        return

    data_to_data = get_attribute(data_to, 'data', [])
    for item in data_to_data:
        print('The id is: %s' % get_attribute(item, 'id', 'null'))

IMPORTANT NOTE:

There is a reason I am using data.get(attribute) or default_value instead of simply data.get(attribute, default_value):

{'my_key': None}.get('my_key', 'nothing') # returns None
{'my_key': None}.get('my_key') or 'nothing' # returns 'nothing'

In my applications getting attribute with value 'null' is the same as not getting the attribute at all. If your usage is different, you need to change this.


回答 3

jsonData = """{"from": {"id": "8", "name": "Mary Pinter"}, "message": "How ARE you?", "comments": {"count": 0}, "updated_time": "2012-05-01", "created_time": "2012-05-01", "to": {"data": [{"id": "1543", "name": "Honey Pinter"}, {"name": "Joe Schmoe"}]}, "type": "status", "id": "id_7"}"""

def getTargetIds(jsonData):
    data = json.loads(jsonData)
    for dest in data['to']['data']:
        print("to_id:", dest.get('id', 'null'))

试试吧:

>>> getTargetIds(jsonData)
to_id: 1543
to_id: null

或者,如果您只想跳过缺少ID的值,而不是打印'null'

def getTargetIds(jsonData):
    data = json.loads(jsonData)
    for dest in data['to']['data']:
        if 'id' in to_id:
            print("to_id:", dest['id'])

所以:

>>> getTargetIds(jsonData)
to_id: 1543

当然,在现实生活中,您可能不想使用print每个id,而是要存储它们并对其进行操作,但这是另一个问题。

jsonData = """{"from": {"id": "8", "name": "Mary Pinter"}, "message": "How ARE you?", "comments": {"count": 0}, "updated_time": "2012-05-01", "created_time": "2012-05-01", "to": {"data": [{"id": "1543", "name": "Honey Pinter"}, {"name": "Joe Schmoe"}]}, "type": "status", "id": "id_7"}"""

def getTargetIds(jsonData):
    data = json.loads(jsonData)
    for dest in data['to']['data']:
        print("to_id:", dest.get('id', 'null'))

Try it:

>>> getTargetIds(jsonData)
to_id: 1543
to_id: null

Or, if you just want to skip over values missing ids instead of printing 'null':

def getTargetIds(jsonData):
    data = json.loads(jsonData)
    for dest in data['to']['data']:
        if 'id' in to_id:
            print("to_id:", dest['id'])

So:

>>> getTargetIds(jsonData)
to_id: 1543

Of course in real life, you probably don't want to print each id, but to store them and do something with them, but that's another issue.


回答 4

if "my_data" in my_json_data:
         print json.dumps(my_json_data["my_data"])
if "my_data" in my_json_data:
         print json.dumps(my_json_data["my_data"])

回答 5

为此,我编写了一个小函数。随时调整用途,

def is_json_key_present(json, key):
    try:
        buf = json[key]
    except KeyError:
        return False

    return True

I wrote a tiny function for this purpose. Feel free to repurpose,

def is_json_key_present(json, key):
    try:
        buf = json[key]
    except KeyError:
        return False

    return True

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